bufotoxins

bu·fo·tox·ins

(bū'fō-toks'inz),
1. A group of steroid lactones (conjugates of bufagins and suberylarginine at C-3) of digitalis present in the venoms of toads (family Bufonidae); their effects are similar to but weaker than those of the bufagins.
2. Specifically, the main toxin of the European toad (Bufo vulgaris).
References in periodicals archive ?
In vertebrates, the cardiovascular effects of bufadienolides and bufotoxins have been attributed to their ability to increase cardiac contractility and decrease cardiac rate by inhibiting the [Na.sub.+]/[K.sup.+]-ATPase pump in a manner similar to digoxin (Chen & Kovarikova, 1967; Sakate & Oliveira, 2000).
Toad toxin mainly consists of derived steroids (bufadienolides and bufotoxins) and biogenic amines (epinephrine, norepinephrine, serotonin, bufotenine, and dihydrobufotenine) [3-6].
These include bufotoxins and larval skin extracts with antipredatory functions, which evoke alarm responses in toad tadpoles.
Bufonid parotoid macroglands, largely known by their toxic secretions, contain bufotoxins that, in contact with the oral mucosa of the predators, may present cardiac glycosidelike activity, increasing the contractile force of the heart [11].