They also found the presence of Monsanto's Bt toxin
. The study was published in the Journal Reproductive Toxicology in 2011 by Aziz Aris and Samuel Leblanc
It is quite evident that mortality percentage of Earias spp larvae decreases with the passage of time and with the gradual reduction of Bt toxin
present in the fruiting bodies (Fig 2).
class="MsoNormalThe Bt cotton is from a genetically modified seed which is developed with a gene called BT toxin
. The toxins are strains of the bacterium Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) that contain proteins that are harmful to the boll worm which is the main pest affecting cotton.
Dean faculty of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences stated possible reason of recent outbreak is the development of resistance in Pink bollworm against Bt toxin
., Cry1Ac in Pakistan.
Differences in Bt toxin
and protoxin susceptibility were previously reported in T.
Further Ghelardiexplained that the Bt toxin
may persists in human guts, lungs and other organs.
The driving forces of the adsorption of Bt toxin
include electrostatics interaction, ligand exchange, hydrophobic bonding, hydrogen bonding and van der Waals forces [12-13].
The crystal and spores formed after sporulation were centrifuged at 16,000 rpm for 15 min at 4C temperature to extract required Bt toxin
(Crecchio and Stotzky, 2001; Hernandez et al., 2005).
Let's take com that's genetically engineered for insect resistance with this BT toxin
in the U.S.
"The first varieties of this Bt maize have now failed spectacularly, as vast areas of farmland have been engulfed by insect pests that have developed resistance to the Bt toxin
. Though Monsanto has released a new Bt variety [containing two Bt toxins], experts predict future insect resistance to these new varieties is inevitable," says Mayet.
This Bt toxin
caused microcytic hypochromic anemia in mice, "even at the lowest tested dose of 27 mg/Kg" in the Mezzomo-led Brazilian study.
"Per acre cotton yield has failed to show any progress despite the international companies are regularly conducting trials in Pakistan creating doubts about the efficacy of the GM crop due to having substandard expression of Bt toxin
which is a recipe of self disaster," remarked a cotton expert associated with the country's cotton research and development sector.