At these higher temperatures, a chemical reaction occurs between protein and carbohydrate in the forage known as browning reaction
, resulting to the dark brown colour and cured tobacco odour.The aroma desired from silage is mild, pleasantly acidic.
Some biochemical agents act directly as inhibitors of PPO, while others induce a non-favorable environment for the browning reaction
and, others reac with the reaction products of PPO before they become colored pigments (Chiabrando and Giacalone, 2012; Sulaiman et al., 2015).
On the contrary, both maltose and lactose easily induce the nonenzymatic browning reaction
and thus influence the color of foods.
The heating processes of palm saps assisted the browning formation of palm sugar, which induced the reaction of non-enzymatic browning reaction
. Besides that, the non-enzymatic reaction between the reducing sugars and amino group during heating is important in giving off flavour to the palm sugar.
Lysine participated in browning reaction
induced by glucose compared to other amino acids and that threonine contributed very little towards browning .
The enzymatic browning reaction
occurs due to presence of the polyphenoloxidase enzyme (PPO) that catalyzes the oxidation reaction of phenolic compounds (Eissa, Fadel, Ibrahim, Hassan, & Elrashid 2006; Oliveira, Soares, Paula, & Viana 2008).
In the case of apples, there is high PPO activity, high CF content, exposure to [O.sub.2] and damage caused by fruit cutting, facilitating the occurrence of the browning reaction
. Because of this, is important to use resources that hinder or delay the occurrence of this enzymatic reaction.
Studies on products of browning reaction
: antioxidative activities of products of browning reaction
prepared from glucosamine.
The chemical process that beef goes through during cooking is called The Maillard or browning reaction
. When protein on the meat surface recombines with the sugars present in the meat, this creates a meaty flavour and changes the colour to brown.
But Joel Brooks, Marketing Specialist at Okanagan, disagrees that Arctic apples' benefits are purely cosmetic, noting that not only do they have significant potential to reduce food waste, the resistance to browning results in better taste, texture and likely a retention of healthful components like vitamin C and antioxidants, which are typically burned up in the browning reaction
The Maillard reaction, also known as the browning reaction
, is the phenomenon responsible for turning meat brown, converting bread to toast and turning beer brown along with hundreds of other examples.
 Ruiter A The Browning Reaction
of Glycolic Aldehydes with Amino-Ethanol III: Renewed Investigations on the Structure of a Reaction Product and Comparison with Aldose Amino-Ethanol Browning.