For instance, intraspecific brood parasitism
and the accidental adoption of young often occur more frequently in large colonies, where breeding density and reproductive synchrony are generally high (Pierotti, 1991; Brown and Brown, 1989, 2001).
Laying eggs by female birds in the nests of birds of other bird species is termed as brood parasitism
(Lyon and Eadie, 2008; Yang et al., 2010, 2016a; Wang et al., 2013; Nahid et al., 2016).
A single ancient origin of brood parasitism
in African finches: implications for host-parasite co-evolution.
Any species that provides protection or care to its young is susceptible to brood parasitism
, but conditions that drive the evolution of brood parasitism
seem to be narrow [13-16].
A number of species engage the brood parasitism
by laying their eggs in the nest of other host birds.
David Attenborough in his book The Life of Birds succinctly describes the advantages of such an adaptation: "Brood parasitism
relieves the parasitic parent from the investment of rearing young or building nests for the young, enabling them to spend more time on other activities such as foraging and producing offspring.
Interspecific brood parasitism
, a form of social parasitism, is a behavior in which the female of one species deposits her eggs in the nest of another species.
An example of a benefit of brood parasitism
is "exceedingly unusual and cool," says Claire Spottiswoode, an evolutionary biologist at the University of Cambridge.
Among these, brood parasitism
(Payne et al., 2001), brood adoption (Howitz, 1986; Simmons, 1992), and brood mixing (Patterson et al., 1982) are best known.
With a decline in the amount of suitable habitat paired with brood parasitism
by the brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater), the Kirthland's warbler population fell to a mere 201 pairs in 1971.
They transplanted pickerelweed plants in the Cache River Wetland, built and posted nesting boxes to research brood parasitism
in bird species, created more than 200 educational binders for local teachers, made and donated children's books to the community's Wetland Center, presented research at a science symposium, created a website and more.
Although rates of brood parasitism
by brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) are high in some warbler species (Ortega, 1998), there are relatively few published accounts with yellow-throated warblers as the host.