traumatic brain injury

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traumatic brain injury

n. Abbr. TBI
Injury to the brain caused by an external force such as a violent blow to the head, resulting in loss of consciousness, memory loss, dizziness, and confusion, and in some cases leading to long-term health effects, including motor and sensory problems, cognitive and behavioral dysfunction, and dementia.
The American Heritage® Medical Dictionary Copyright © 2007, 2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

trau·mat·ic brain in·ju·ry

(TBI) (traw-mat'ik brān in'jŭr-ē)
An insult to the brain as the result of physical trauma or external force, not degenerative or congenital, that may cause a diminished or altered state of consciousness and may impair cognitive, behavioral, physical, or emotional functioning.
Synonym(s): acquired brain injury.
Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing © Farlex 2012

traumatic brain injury

Abbreviation: TBI
Any injury involving direct trauma to the head, accompanied by alterations in mental status or consciousness. TBI is one of the most common causes of neurological dysfunction in the U.S. Each year about 50,000 people die from brain trauma, and an additional 70,000 to 90,000 sustain persistent neurological impairment because of it. About 5.3 million Americans live with TBI disabilities. The most common causes of TBI are motor vehicle or bicycle collisions; falls; gunshot wounds; assaults and abuse; and sports-related injuries. Twice as many males as females suffer TBIs, with the incidence highest between ages 15 and 24. People over 75 are also frequently affected (because of falls).

Patient care

Many traumatic injuries to the head and brain are preventable if simple precautions are followed: motorists should never drive while intoxicated; cyclists and bicyclists should always wear helmets; frail, elderly people should wear supportive footwear and use sturdy devices to assist them while walking.

Symptoms of TBI may include problems with concentration, depressed mood, dizziness, headaches, impulsivity, irritability, post-traumatic stress, or, in severe injuries, focal motor, sensory or verbal deficits. Late effects of severe or repeated injuries can include dementia, Parkinsonism, or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Lou Gehrig's disease).

CAUTION!

If an injury to the brain has occurred or is suspected, the victim should not be moved until spinal precautions are carefully implemented. Serial neurologic assessments are carried out to identify the severity of injury and any subsequent deterioration, using the Glasgow Coma Scale.

TBIs can produce intracranial hemorrhage (epidural hematoma [EDH]), subdural hematoma (SDH), intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), and traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH); cerebral contusions; concussion (with postconcussive syndrome); and diffuse axonal injury (DAI). Treatments vary depending upon the type of injury that occurred. Synonym: cerebral concussion

See: table
See also: injury
Medical Dictionary, © 2009 Farlex and Partners

trau·mat·ic brain in·ju·ry

(TBI) (traw-mat'ik brān in'jŭr-ē)
An insult to the brain as the result of physical trauma or external force, not degenerative or congenital, which may cause a diminished or altered state of consciousness and may impair cognitive, behavioral, physical, or emotional functioning.
Medical Dictionary for the Dental Professions © Farlex 2012
References in periodicals archive ?
Children with postconcussional disorder often experience one or more of the following symptoms: (1) a period of unconsciousness lasting for more than 5 minutes after the brain trauma, 2) a period of posttraumatic amnesia lasting for more than 12 hours, and 3) a new onset of seizures that occurs within the first 6 months after the injury (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 1994).
He had suffered facial injuries after attending a party on the Leam Lane Estate, in Gateshead, and died six days later in hospital from a severe brain trauma.
Ahmad Akhtary, aged 34, got hold of a mockup death certificate from Afghanistan stating he had died of a "brain trauma" in the wake of an accident there.
Group II: experimental brain trauma (EBT) was performed on each animal using a 1 cm inner diameter x 10 cm long glass tube, through which a 20 g weight (0.5 cm diameter) was dropped onto the brain at the craniotomy site, causing a contusional head trauma.
The force of the crash broke her nose and jaw, knocked out several teeth and caused minor brain trauma, her family has said.
Pathologist Andrew Davison said the cause of death was a blood clot caused by brain trauma.
Visiting patients who suffered serious wounds such as severe brain trauma and amputations, the players and coaches watched as one veteran was learning how to use his prosthetic arm and another using a computer which helps those with brain trauma relearn how to drive a vehicle.
Patients who have suffered massive brain trauma are cared for at Middlesbrough's James Cook University Hospital.
On rare occasions, a person suffering a stroke or other forms of brain trauma will develop dysmusia, says Julie Ayotte of the University of Montreal.
They concluded that a link existed between brain trauma and the start of a neuro-degenerative Alzheimer's-like process which may take many years to unfold.
The 44-year-old is said to be in a critical condition as he suffered from a serious brain trauma with coma on his arrival to the hospital.