traumatic brain injury

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traumatic brain injury

n. Abbr. TBI
Injury to the brain caused by an external force such as a violent blow to the head, resulting in loss of consciousness, memory loss, dizziness, and confusion, and in some cases leading to long-term health effects, including motor and sensory problems, cognitive and behavioral dysfunction, and dementia.

trau·mat·ic brain in·ju·ry

(TBI) (traw-mat'ik brān in'jŭr-ē)
An insult to the brain as the result of physical trauma or external force, not degenerative or congenital, that may cause a diminished or altered state of consciousness and may impair cognitive, behavioral, physical, or emotional functioning.
Synonym(s): acquired brain injury.

traumatic brain injury

Abbreviation: TBI
Any injury involving direct trauma to the head, accompanied by alterations in mental status or consciousness. TBI is one of the most common causes of neurological dysfunction in the U.S. Each year about 50,000 people die from brain trauma, and an additional 70,000 to 90,000 sustain persistent neurological impairment because of it. About 5.3 million Americans live with TBI disabilities. The most common causes of TBI are motor vehicle or bicycle collisions; falls; gunshot wounds; assaults and abuse; and sports-related injuries. Twice as many males as females suffer TBIs, with the incidence highest between ages 15 and 24. People over 75 are also frequently affected (because of falls).

Patient care

Many traumatic injuries to the head and brain are preventable if simple precautions are followed: motorists should never drive while intoxicated; cyclists and bicyclists should always wear helmets; frail, elderly people should wear supportive footwear and use sturdy devices to assist them while walking.

Symptoms of TBI may include problems with concentration, depressed mood, dizziness, headaches, impulsivity, irritability, post-traumatic stress, or, in severe injuries, focal motor, sensory or verbal deficits. Late effects of severe or repeated injuries can include dementia, Parkinsonism, or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Lou Gehrig's disease).

CAUTION!

If an injury to the brain has occurred or is suspected, the victim should not be moved until spinal precautions are carefully implemented. Serial neurologic assessments are carried out to identify the severity of injury and any subsequent deterioration, using the Glasgow Coma Scale.

TBIs can produce intracranial hemorrhage (epidural hematoma [EDH]), subdural hematoma (SDH), intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), and traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH); cerebral contusions; concussion (with postconcussive syndrome); and diffuse axonal injury (DAI). Treatments vary depending upon the type of injury that occurred. Synonym: cerebral concussion

See: table
See also: injury

trau·mat·ic brain in·ju·ry

(TBI) (traw-mat'ik brān in'jŭr-ē)
An insult to the brain as the result of physical trauma or external force, not degenerative or congenital, which may cause a diminished or altered state of consciousness and may impair cognitive, behavioral, physical, or emotional functioning.
References in periodicals archive ?
According to DePrima, most brain injuries are temporary, with recovery times of weeks or months.
8 million emergency department visits, hospitalizations and deaths related to traumatic brain injuries occurred in the U.
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The study found nearly 50 percent of both boys and girls reported traumatic brain injuries that resulted in a loss of consciousness, amnesia or both.
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Washington, March 13 ( ANI ): Low cognitive function and factors related to a low socioeconomic status are important risk factors for mild traumatic brain injuries, a new study has concluded.
Mark Boyne, a graduate at the centre of the initiative, said it was after his brother sustained a serious head injury during a game of hockey that he realised how serious brain injuries can be.
uk My own experience of brain injury has been widely reported, but of course children can suffer brain injuries too - the causes include road accidents, falls, brain tumours and meningitis.
based service provider for people with autism, acquired brain injuries and other intellectual and developmental disabilities, is producing webinars for brain-injury professionals.
The Brain Injury Group is a national network of specialist brain injury lawyers working in tandem with a range of other professionals involved in welfare, financial and family services to support people with acquired brain injuries.

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