Boxers’ Encephalopathy

Boxers’ encephalopathy refers to the constellation of major neuropsychologic defects in amateur and career boxers—affecting 10–20% of the latter group—and is the cumulative result of recurrent brain damage and progressive communicating hydrocephalus due to extrapyramidal and cerebellar lesions. Wechsler and Bender Gestalt testing reveals variable organic mental disease and impaired short-term memory, dysarthria, nystagmus, reasoning ability, and motor skills. Acute boxing injuries include cerebral oedema, ischemia, and temporal or uncal herniation
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