occidentalis populations in Shandong Province would be much less than those of potential source populations because of the founder or bottleneck effects.
For instance, under the Two Phase Mutation and Stepwise Mutation models (Table 5), the number of populations that exhibited heterozygosity excess decreased, which indicated that the bottleneck effects within these populations is a transient feature, and can be expected to last only a few generations.
on genetic variance for courtship repertoire.
In addition, generalized genetic distances for the ancestor from its own mean over all bottleneck cycles provided a further basis to test bottleneck effects
on phenotypic divergence, by assessing drift, selection, and resampling effects in the ancestor.
Our results are anomalous with these predictions, but are consistent with our previous work on bottleneck effects
, where we found that heritabilities (and additive genetic variances) of morphometric traits obtained from parent - offspring covariances were the same (or higher) in bottlenecked versus nonbottlenecked lines (Bryant et al.