But most of the tar sands lie hidden below northern Alberta's boreal forest
, in an area larger than the state of Florida.
Each spring, approximately 3 billion migratory birds that winter in South America or southern North America turn tail and fly northward to the boreal forest
. Why do the birds--from white pelicans to dark-eyed junco songbirds--undertake the lengthy journey, which may span hundreds or even thousands of miles?
Here in New York State, these birds live where boreal forests
of black spruce, tamarack and balsam fir are found.
Schindler points to Alberta for a glimpse of the boreal forest
's future today.
The boreal forest
is also a hotbed of waterfowl brooding activity, running a close second to the prairie pothole region of the northern Great Plains for the title of the continent's biggest duck factory.
As a whole, the southern edge of the boreal forest
in Europe coincides approximately with the northern limit of the distribution of the English oak (Quercus robur).
This is partly due to the fact that most studies of the boreal forest
have emphasized post-fire succession, while disturbance dynamics affecting old post-fire stands are rarely studied.
If the permafrost continues to melt, he says, the boreal forests
that grow over it could be replaced by dry steppe.
In the case of Plants of the Western Boreal Forest
, only a biologist, and this reviewer is not, would be in a position to judge.
And many plants are threatened too; in the province of Alberta alone, about 100 plant species are known to grow only in boreal forest
, and roughly half of these are already rare.
Jeffery's research seeks to understand the causes and consequences of a near-total population collapse of Arctic ground squirrels (Urocitellus parryii) since 2000 in the boreal forest
of southwestern Yukon.
BC's Great Bear Rainforest and Canadian Boreal Forest
agreements are good examples of large-scale plans that include conservation areas.