Bone marrow

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marrow

 [mar´o]
soft spongy material; called also medulla. The term is often restricted to mean bone marrow.
bone marrow the soft, organic, spongelike material in the cavities of bones; called also medulla ossium. It is a network of blood vessels and special connective tissue fibers that hold together a composite of fat and blood-producing cells. Its chief function is to manufacture erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets. These blood cells normally do not enter the bloodstream until they are fully developed, so that the marrow contains cells in all stages of growth. If the body's demand for leukocytes is increased because of infection, the marrow responds immediately by stepping up production. The same is true if more erythrocytes are needed, as in hemorrhage or anemia.

There are two types of marrow, red and yellow. The former produces the blood cells; the latter, which is mainly formed of fatty tissue, normally has no blood-producing function. During infancy and early childhood all bone marrow is red. But gradually, as one gets older and less blood cell production is needed, the fat content of the marrow increases as some of it turns from red to yellow. Red marrow is present in adulthood only in the flat bones of the skull, the sternum, ribs, vertebral column, clavicle, humerus, and part of the femur. However, under certain conditions, as after hemorrhage, yellow marrow in other bones may again be converted to red and resume its cell-producing functions.

The marrow is occasionally subject to disease, as in aplastic anemia, which may be caused by destruction of the marrow by chemical agents or excessive x-ray exposure. Other diseases that affect the bone marrow are leukemia, pernicious anemia, myeloma, and metastatic tumors.
Cells of the bone marrow and the blood. From Malarkey and McMorrow, 2000.
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.

bone mar·row

[TA]
the soft, pulpy tissue filling the medullary cavities of bones, having a stroma of reticular fibers and cells; it differs in consistency by age and location.
See also: gelatinous bone marrow, red bone marrow, yellow bone marrow.
Synonym(s): medulla ossium [TA]
Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012

bone marrow

n.
The soft, fatty, vascular tissue that fills most bone cavities and is the source of red blood cells and many white blood cells.
The American Heritage® Medical Dictionary Copyright © 2007, 2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

bone marrow

The soft, spongy tissue in the centre of large bones, which is composed of mature and immature blood cells and fat. Bone marrow produces leukocytes, erythrocytes and platelets from cognate stem cells, and is the body’s most radiation-sensitive tissue.

BONE MARROW

A trial assessing the safety of the proprietary Biosense system for percutaneous injection of autologous bone marrow into ischaemic myocardium of patients with refractory angina.
 
Primary endpoints
Major acute coronary events at 30 days.
 
Conclusion
Autologous bone marrow cell injection in patients with ischemia is safe and results in a sustained beneficial effect on anginal symptoms, myocardial perfusion and left ventricular function.
Segen's Medical Dictionary. © 2012 Farlex, Inc. All rights reserved.

bone mar·row

(bōn mar'ō) [TA]
The tissue filling the cavities of bones, having a stroma of reticular fibers and cells.
Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing © Farlex 2012

marrow

(mar'o)
Enlarge picture
RED BONE MARROW: Red bone marrow can only be found in the ribs, sternum, vertebrae, skull, pelvis, and upper parts of both the humerus and femur. All other bones contain yellow marrow.
1. The soft tissue in the marrow cavities of long bones (yellow marrow) and in the spaces between trabeculae of spongy bone in the sternum and other flat and irregular bones (red marrow). Yellow marrow consists principally of fat cells and connective tissue and does not participate in hematopoiesis. Red marrow produces redf blood cells. Synonym: bone marrow; medulla (1) See: illustration
2. The substance of the spinal cord. Synonym: spinal marrow

bone marrow

Marrow (1).

gelatinous marrow

Yellow marrow of the old or the emaciated, almost devoid of fat and having a gelatinous consistency.

spinal marrow

Marrow (2).illustration
Medical Dictionary, © 2009 Farlex and Partners

bone marrow

The substance contained within bone cavities. This is red in the flat bones and the vertebrae, and yellow from fat in adult long bones. The volume of the red marrow in young adults is about 15 l. The basic marrow stem cell differentiates into HAEMOGLOBIN-carrying red blood cells, the white blood cells of the immune system and the blood PLATELETS which are essential for BLOOD CLOTTING.
Collins Dictionary of Medicine © Robert M. Youngson 2004, 2005

bone marrow

a modified connective tissue of a vascular nature found in long bones and some flat bones of vertebrates; it is responsible for the manufacture of blood cells.
Collins Dictionary of Biology, 3rd ed. © W. G. Hale, V. A. Saunders, J. P. Margham 2005

Bone marrow

A substance found in the cavities of bones, especially the long bones and the sternum (breast bone). The bone marrow contains those cells that are responsible for the production of the blood cells (red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets).
Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

bone mar·row

(bōn mar'ō) [TA]
The tissue filling the cavities of bones, having a stroma of reticular fibers and cells.
Medical Dictionary for the Dental Professions © Farlex 2012

Patient discussion about Bone marrow

Q. What is a bone marrow transplant? I wanted to enter myself as a potential bone marrow donor and wanted to know first of all what bone marrow is? What does a bone marrow transplant mean and how is it done?

A. Bone marrow is a soft, fatty tissue inside the bones. This is where blood cells are produced, and where they develop. Transplanted bone marrow will restore production of white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets. Donated bone marrow must match the patient's tissue type. It can be taken from the patient, a living relative (usually a brother or a sister), or from an unrelated donor. Donors are matched through special blood tests called HLA tissue typing. Bone marrow is taken from the donor in the operating room while the donor is unconscious and pain-free (under general anesthesia). Some of the donor's bone marrow is removed from the top of the hip bone. The bone marrow is filtered, treated, and transplanted immediately or frozen and stored for later use. Transplant marrow is transfused into the patient through a vein (IV) and is naturally carried into the bone cavities where it grows to replace the old bone marrow.

Q. What is Leukemia? My brother's best friend has been diagnosed with Leukemia. What is it? Is it dangerous? Can you recover from it?

A. Leukemia is the general name for four different types of blood cancers. In people with leukemia, the bone marrow produces abnormal white blood cells. The abnormal cells are leukemia cells. At first, leukemia cells function almost normally. In time, they may crowd out normal white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets. This makes it hard for blood to do its work. After diagnosis, many people with leukemia do survive and live many good, quality years. The relative five-year survival rate has more than tripled in the past 47 years for patients with leukemia. In 1960-63, when compared to a person without leukemia, a patient had a 14 percent chance of living five years. By 1975-77, the five year relative survival rate had jumped to 35 percent, and in 1996-2003 the overall relative survival rate was nearly 50 percent.

More discussions about Bone marrow
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References in periodicals archive ?
To investigate cell behaviors on ICA-loaded NT array substrates, we observed the morphologies of bone marrow cells using an inverted fluorescence microscope (Figure 5).
The 100 x oil immersion objective with 10 x eyepiece under bright illumination was used for taking photomicrographs of selected metaphases from the prepared chromosomal slides of bone marrow cells.
A small study in the Netherlands, published in the May 20 issue of Journal of the American Medical Association, found that bone marrow cells injected into the heart may improve myocardial perfusion (flow of blood in the heart) in patients with chronic myocardial ischemia--a painful condition resulting from a temporary lack of oxygen-rich blood flow to the heart.
Tests have shown a significant increase in the synthesis activity of ribonucleic acid, a function of the liver, leading researchers to conclude that the bone marrow cells were transforming into liver cells, they said.
Induction of calcitonin receptors by 1[alpha], 25-dihydroxyvitamin [D.sub.3] in osteoclast-like multinucleated cells formed from mouse bone marrow cells. Endocrinology 1988;123:1504-10.
Currently, though, such transplants are hampered by the lack of ways to supply large amounts of needed bone marrow cells quickly.
Bone marrow cells, the ultimate source of all blood cells, appeared to be the best choice for the "target cell." If genes could be transferred into the patient's own bone marrow, doctors might hope to cure their patients in one procedure.
The transplanted bone marrow cells migrate to the marrow space and actually begin the process of repopulation.
Hematopoietic precursor stem cells give rise to all of the blood cells and most of the bone marrow cells in the body.
By using autologous bone marrow cells rather than donor cells, the body's acceptance of the therapy might be improved and infection risk and complications could be minimized.
A team of researchers from Sweden and France has now shown that bone marrow cells can also form fat.
The patient's own bone marrow cells have been added to the graft to provide a source of bone stem cells to encourage bone regeneration behind and around the implant.