bone marrow aspiration and biopsy(redirected from Bone Marrow Biopsy and Aspiration)
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Bone Marrow Aspiration and Biopsy
- pinpoint the cause of abnormal blood test results
- confirm a diagnosis or check the status of severe anemia (abnormally low numbers of red blood cells in the bloodstream) of unknown cause, or other irregularities in the way blood cells are produced or become mature.
- evaluate abnormalities in the blood's ability to store iron.
- diagnose infection
- obtain intact bone marrow for laboratory analysis
- diagnose and stage some types of cancer or anemia and other blood disorders
- identify the source of an unexplained fever
- diagnose fibrosis of bone marrow or myeloma (a tumor composed of cells normally found in the bone marrow) when bone marrow aspiration has failed to provide an appropriate specimen
- feels severe pain more than 24 hours after the procedure.
- experiences persistent bleeding or notices more than a few drops of blood on the wound dressing.
- has a temperature above 101 °F (38.3 °C). Inflammation and pus at the biopsy site and other signs of infection should also be reported to a doctor without delay.
bone marrow aspiration and biopsyA diagnostic procedure in which tissue is obtained from bone marrow to diagnose haematologic disorders or assess efficacy of therapy.
Chronic anaemia, leukopeania, thrombocytopeania, aplastic anaemia, leukaemias and lymphomas, polycythemia vera, myelodysplastic syndromes, myeloma.
Intense (“gnawing”) bone pain.
bone marrow aspiration and biopsy
The purpose of the test is explained to the patient (and family as necessary). The patient is advised that some discomfort or pressure may be felt, e.g., a crunching or popping sound may be heard as the needle penetrates the bone. A signed, informed consent must be obtained before the procedure. The patient’s history is reviewed, including risk for bleeding, coagulation studies, platelet count, anticoagulant therapy, and use of drugs or supplements that interfere with clotting. The patient is also assessed for allergies to antiseptic or anesthetic solutions. The patient is advised that he or she must remain still throughout the procedure, and the ability to do so is assessed. Baseline signs are recorded, and a sedative is administered as prescribed. The patient is assisted to the appropriate position for the insertion site: the lateral decubitus position for the posterior iliac crest and the supine position for the sternum or anterior iliac crest. The health care provider helps the patient maintain the desired position. The patient is encouraged to take deep breaths and use relaxation techniques during the procedure.
A sterile prepackaged set is used for the aspiration, and the practitioner is assisted as necessary. The patient is assessed throughout the procedure for pallor, diaphoresis, or other changes. After the aspiration, direct pressure is applied to the puncture site for 5 to 10 minutes or according to agency policy until bleeding is controlled; the wound is then covered with a sterile dressing. The patient is helped into a comfortable position, and vital signs are checked. The puncture site is reassessed as necessary for bleeding. All specimens are labeled and transported to the laboratory. Postprocedure pain intensity is evaluated, and analgesia is provided as prescribed. The patient is advised to watch for and report any signs of infection and is warned to avoid any drugs containing acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin), which may cause bleeding.
Specimens of marrow and aspirate are sent to the cytology or pathology laboratory for microscopic analysis, to the microbiology laboratory if cultures are needed, and/or to the clinical laboratory for chromosomal analysis or staining. A biopsy or aspirate that does not yield adequate material for analysis is known colloquially as a “dry tap.”