Over 20 BPM members have been identified to date (3) , among them BMP-2, BMP-3, BMP-4 and BMP-7
have been studied more than any others.
stated that inhibition of fibrosis pathway via TGF-[beta]1 may increase BMP-7
gene expression in hypertensive nephrosclerosis, tubulointerstitial fibrosis and diabetic nephropathy .
Together with previous findings using BMP-7
to stimulate their growth, the researchers believe they may be able to induce these stem cells to become functional islets.
The first study  indicates that recombinant adenovirus BMP-2 and BMP-12 (Ad-BMP-2, Ad-BMP-12) formed tissue-like tendons/ligaments, unlike BMP-2, BMP-4, and BMP-7
. This signifies that proteins in bone and cartilage healing have not been fully studied.
Caption: Figure 3: Representative photographs of kidney sections stained with TGF-[beta], BMP-7
, Smad2/3, and [p16.sup.INK4a] in UUO model.
Other claims provide for growth factors such as BMP-2, BMP-4, BMP-6, BMP-7
, transforming growth factor (TGF-?), and insulin growth factor (IGF-I).
Following the reverse merger, Ember Therapeutics will continue to develop BMP-7
, which achieved promising results in a Phase II(a) trial, which evaluated the local administration of BMP-7
in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee.
BMP-2, BMP-4, BMP-7
, and BMP-9 expression was significantly increased at the messenger RNA level in quadriceps of mice that underwent SCI (Figures 6-7).
There are two BMPs clinically available: BMP-7
(also known as osteogenic protein-1 or OP-1) supplied by Stryker UK, which uses a bovine collagen carrier in granular form (OP-1 Putty in the US and Osigraft [R] in the UK), and rhBMP-2 supplied by Wyeth Research Ltd, which uses a collagen sponge carrier (InFUSE in the US and InductOs in the UK).
In order to cover a representative spectrum of different proteins or mediators, synovial concentrations of BMP-2, BMP-7
, endoglin (part of the BMPR-1A complex), bFGF and IGF-1 and its receptor as marker of intrinsic cartilage repair, IL-1[beta] and MMP-13 as a marker of inflammation, aggrecan as an integral part of the extracellular matrix (ECM), and the total protein content were determined.
PF also suppressed epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by down-regulating TGF-[beta]1 expression and maintaining BMP-7
mRNA expression, and inhibited Smad 2/3 activation in fibrotic kidneys induced by UUO.
Indeed, the biological activity of BMP-2 and BMP-7
was reduced following chemical deglycosylation , and N-glycosylation at the Asn 73 residue in the wrist epitope of BMP-6 is essential for its recognition by the type I receptor .