The search was electronic, targeting studies that designed and tested traps to capture black flies
. This produced 64 references but only 9 were included in the review using the inclusion/exclusion criteria (see Figure 1).
The effects of black flies
on birds breeding at high latitudes have been reported previously (Doyle, 2000; Solheim et al., 2013), including the collection of Metacnephia bilineata (as Metacnephia saileri) from immature domestic geese in Kuujjuaq, Quebec, on the southernmost fringe of the Arctic ecoclimatic zone (cf.
Dai was never happier than when dressing black flies
- especially in his later years after suffering a mini stroke.
Finally, Waldbauer describes the complex relationship between these insects and people: While mosquitoes and black flies
are often carriers of disease, other varieties of aquatic and semiaquatic insects are culinary delicacies.
That blue Northern sky, the crisp air, the scent of change, the lack of black flies
candles deter mosquitoes and black flies
, enabling you to venture outside without the threat of being eaten alive.
Our quarters were screened huts that somehow managed to attract hundreds of biting black flies
. The only way we could sleep was to pull heavy wool blankets over our heads and literally "sweat it out." I slept like a baby!
* Black flies
, also known as buffalo gnats, are smaller biting flies, about one-eighth of an inch long.
Female black flies
are known to bite humans, as well as animals, in order to feed on blood to help them breed.
There are areas of Africa and America where vision is the privilege of the young, who act as guides for the many adults blinded by onchocerciasis, or "river blindness." The vectors of this parasitic disease are female black flies
(Simulium), which, like tsetse flies, are blood-sucking dipterans.
are attracted to dark, moving objects and are more prevalent in the morning.