The Birbeck granule
, a trilaminar rod-like organelle with a terminal expansion resembling a tennis racquet, is distinctive.
Electron microscopy of the tumor cells demonstrated the presence of Birbeck granules
(Figure 2e) in the majority of histiocytes examined.
In early lesions, scalloped macrophages dominate the histology, but most well-developed lesions have a mixture of the above.14 Immunohistochemical studies show negative staining for S-100, CD1a, and Birbeck granules
, and positive staining for the surface markers CD68 and factor XIIIa.15 Our patient had typical lesion involving typical sites and histopathology of skin lesions showed foamy histiocytes and occasional multinucleated giant cell in dermis.
The typical non-Langerhans' foamy histiocytes that lacked Birbeck granules
, located in a polymorphic granuloma with xanthogranulomatosis was shown.
They also show Birbeck granules
on electron microscopy .
These cells express S100 protein, CD1a, and langerin (CD207) and contain intracytoplasmic Birbeck granules
. They are named after Paul Langerhans (1847-1888), a German pathologist, physiologist, and biologist who discovered these cells in the skin and postulated that they were possibly nerve endings.
(1,2) The major diagnostic features of LCH are expression of CD1a and S100 as well as ultrastructural Birbeck granules
. (3) Its presentation can differ from a mild bone lesion to a multi-systemic evolved malignant neoplasm; however, the latter outcome is almost rare.
Langerhans cells are dendritic antigen presenting cells with distinctive convoluted nuclear contour, presence of Birbeck granules
on electron microscopy and positive staining with S-100 and CD1a.
The presence of birbeck granules
in the cytoplasm is characterictic.
Langerhans cells have cytoplasmic inclusion bodies known as Birbeck granules
; a definitive diagnosis requires electron microscopy of Birbeck granules
or CD 1 antigenic determinants by immunohistochemistry.
The immunoprofile is (CD1a+, S100+), and some cells should have the characteristic LC features of grooved nuclei and/or Birbeck granules
. LCS tends to affect the elderly and has an aggressive clinical course associated with a high mortality rate despite aggressive treatment (4).
S-100, CD 68 and CD-1a stains were positive and Birbeck granules
were seen on electron microscopy (EM), confirming the diagnosis.