For example, one major initial finding was that predation, a biotic factor
that we had posited as being of major significance here, was not as important as we originally thought.
A paired t-test (SAS 2008) was used to determine differences between the leaf area damaged by cohorts exposed to biotic plus abiotic factors and the area damaged by cohorts on leaves where biotic factors
The biotic factors
relevant to this species include availability of acceptable blood meal sources, level of predation, and the availability of the appropriate vegetation to provide a sugar source.
Many abiotic factors (such as temperature, nutrients, and chemicals) and biotic factors
(such as the host plant and predators) can cause fluctuations in aphid populations (Minks & Harrewijn, 1989; Richardson & Lagos, 2007).
It is important to ascertain the relative influence biotic factors
and body size have on fecundity, to aid in the understanding of grasshopper population dynamics and outbreaks (Branson et al.
In addition, the rate of fertilizer breakdown and utilisation may be greatly higher in the rice fields because of presence of a wide range of biotic factors
including decomposition microorganisms, aquatic animals and vegetation including rice plants.
also have a profound effect on plant growth and development.
Environment: (1603) 1: the circumstances, objects or conditions by which one is surrounded 2a: the complex of physical, chemical and biotic factors
(as climate, soil and living things) that act upon an organism or an ecological community and ultimately determine its form and survival b: the aggregate of social and cultural conditions that influence the life of an individual or community--environmental (adj.) environmentally (adv.)
Environmental science is the systematic study of the complex of physical, chemical, and biotic factors
that act upon on an organism or an ecologic community and ultimately determine its form and survival.
While the study of biotic factors
, including competition and predation, are important in order to understand the dynamics regulating community structure, the study of abiotic factors must also be included as possible controlling variables (Dunson & Travis 1991).
Two groups of associations were identified in each river --a commonly occurring species group exhibiting strong homogenous correlation with environmental factors and a predominant group exhibiting weak correlation with environmental factors and whose abundance / composition may be defined by biotic factors
Chapter 11 is by Ong of ICRAF and Rao of ICRISAT, who review much of their own literature on agroforestry including competition for inputs and interaction with other biotic factors
in relation to management of agroforestry systems.