genetic engineering

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ge·net·ic en·gi·neer·ing

internal manipulation of basic genetic material of an organism to modify biologic heredity or to produce peptides of high purity, such as hormones or antigens.

genetic engineering

n.
Scientific alteration of the structure of genetic material in a living organism. It involves the production and use of recombinant DNA and has been employed to create bacteria that synthesize insulin and other human proteins.

genetic engineer n.

biotechnology

Any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use.

Biotech tools
Recombinant DNA, monoclonal antibody and bioprocessing techniques, cell fusion.
 
Biotech products
Antibiotics, insulin, interferons, recombinant DNA, and techniques (e.g., waste recycling).
 
Ancient forms of biotechnology
Production of bread, cheese, wine, beer.

genetic engineering

Biological engineering, genetic modification, recombinant DNA technology Molecular biology The manipulation of a living genome by introducing or eliminating specific genes through recombinant DNA techniques, which may result in a new capability–eg production of different substances or new functions, gene repair or replacement

genetic engineering

The deliberate alteration, for practical purposes, of the GENOME of a cell so as to change its hereditable characteristics. This is done mainly by recombinant DNA techniques using gene copies obtained by the POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION. Enzymes (restriction enzymes) are used to cut the nucleic acid molecule at determinable positions and short lengths of DNA from another organism are inserted. The second cell will now contain genes for the property or characteristic borrowed from the first cell. The genes might, for instance, code for the production of a useful protein such as insulin or some food material. Bacteria, yeasts and other organisms are used as the hosts for the new gene sequences and these organisms can be cloned in enormous numbers to produce the desired effects, or substances, for which the new genes code. Well over 100 valuable drugs and vaccines have been produced in this way, including human insulin, growth hormone, interferons, hepatitis vaccine, digoxin monoclonal antibody, orthoclonal OK3, somatotropin, TISSUE PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR (TPA), erythropoietin, granulocyte MACROPHAGE colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) and Factor VIII. Cloned copies of the genes for many genetic diseases have been made available for use as probes for the identification of the disease by AMNIOCENTESIS, before birth. The possibility also arises of correcting genetic defects in early embryos. Genetic engineering offers almost unlimited possibilities for the advancement of medicine, science and technology, but strict control is also necessary if the many manifest dangers are to be avoided.

genetic engineering

a broad term for all those processes that result in the directed modification of the genetic complement of an organism. The term applies to a wide range of genetical techniques, for example, plant and animal breeding to improve physiological performance by SELECTION, and GENE CLONING techniques for the deliberate transfer of genetic material from one organism to another where it is not normally found. For example, a gene can be removed from human cells and transferred to microbial cells (using BACTERIOPHAGE or PLASMID vectors) where the ‘foreign’ gene can direct the formation of useful products. There are many applications of genetic engineering in industry, agriculture and medicine. In industry a range of recombinant proteins has been obtained, for example INSULIN, INTERFERON and HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE. Genetic engineering is also being used in the development of VACCINES, novel plant varieties etc. See also TRANSGENESIS, PROTEIN ENGINEERING.

Genetic engineering

The manipulation of genetic material to produce specific results in an organism.
Mentioned in: Gene Therapy
References in periodicals archive ?
For it to be science, a biogenetic apparatus(es) is required in humans to execute the aforementioned septenary functions and processes which, importantly, are not found in or are differentially developed in non-human animals.
Evidence for the neurobiology of/the biogenetic bases of this teleological drive for perfectibility (Bynum, 1999, 148-153; Moore, 2002) appears unassailable.
Giuseppe Goi, Biogenetics' Product Manager said, "Biogenetics selects only those products and suppliers that allow us to provide proven quality to our customers.
National Research Council recommended in its report Classifying Drinking Water Contaminants for Regulatory Consideration that the EPA incorporate biogenetics in identifying and assessing emerging waterborne pathogens.
For example, in my field of moral theology, I, too, am quite conservative in the area of biogenetics. I, too, have concerns and fears because new technologies are moving forward and are creating problems we are not prepared to deal with.
International contributors to 21 chapters review the latest understanding of the disease's etiology, epidemiology, biogenetics, early detection/prevention, and cellular and molecular pathology.
The preservation of indigenous cultures (including tangible and intangible elements, arts and artifacts, traditions, knowledge systems, ecosystem management, spirituality, and biogenetics) becomes an essential component of a comprehensive indigenous human rights "package." In the past, however, public policies were frequently designed to eliminate and transform indigenous cultures, which were considered detrimental to the idea of national integration and development (for example, the controversial experience of residential schools for American Indian children in Canada and the United States).
In the year 2003, these banks were: Andrology Lab, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, BioGenetics, California Cryobank, Cryobiology, Inc., Cryogenic Laboratories, Idant Laboratories, New York Cryo, ReproTech, Inc., and Sperm and Embryo Bank of New Jersey.
A stylish, flip-open cover will hide a super-computer powerhouse that can emit a holographic image, communicate with anyone on the planet (and beyond), download all your e-mail in seconds, and scan your surroundings for harmful biogenetics agents--or at least the closest Starbucks.
"Furthermore, the movement of science on all fronts--genetics and biogenetics, to name just a few--combined with the general pace of development in modern society is really placing many more demands on the talent that we have and the talent that we will need in the future.
We are entering a period, however, when very small numbers of persons, operating with the enormous power of modern computers, biogenetics, air transport, and even small nuclear weapons, can deal lethal blows to any society.