The subversive nature of this behavior is also pointed out by Rachel Stein, who sees it as a resistance of a form of biocolonialism
: "the film presents the immigrants' cleverly strategic teamwork to successfully subvert the organ exchange for their own ends, emphasizing the intelligent agency of third word characters who resist the powerful tide of biocolonialism
" (Stein 111).
(12) Pistacchi, Ann, 'Te Whare Tapa Wha: The Four Cornerstones of Maori Health and Patricia Grace's Dogside Story ', Journal of New Zealand Literature, 26.1 (2008), 136-52; see also Clare Barker, '"The Ancestors Within": Genetics, Biocolonialism
, and Medical Ethics in Patricia Grace's Baby No-Eyes', Journal of Literary & Cultural Disability Studies, 7.2 (2013), 141-58.
and Indigenous Knowledge in United Nations Discourse.
For Shome, these practices act as a form of biocolonialism
that reinforces the white nation and global whiteness.
While the genes of aboriginal Taiwanese are often presented in mainstream Chinese nationalist discourses (of, say, alcoholism among aborigines) as "black box" unquestioned facts, opening the "black box" reveals a complex and politicized social process, or "biocolonialism
" of genetic research.
All of the leading reproductive justice, women-of-color-led advocacy organizations in the United States were represented at the convening, and the following organizations cosponsored the event: Asian Communities for Reproductive Justice, Black Women's Health Imperative, California Latinas for Reproductive Justice, Indigenous People's Council on Biocolonialism
, National Asian Pacific American Women's Forum, National Latina Institute for Reproductive Health, and SisterSong Women of Color Reproductive Justice Collective.
For example, in response to the Human Genome Diversity Project and biopiracy cases of the 1990s, in 2000, the Indigenous Peoples' Council on Biocolonialism
drafted a model ordinance called the Indigenous Research Protection Act protocol for Aboriginal peoples to use in genetic research (Indigenous Peoples' Council on Biocolonialism
Then there is the burgeoning practice of outsourcing clinical trials to cheaper sites across the globe to test new drugs, whereby "the dearth of health care in much of the developing world leaves its people vulnerable to experimental exploitation and abuse." Washington also discusses biocolonialism
: "Researchers and pharmaceutical companies have designs on the diverse biological riches of poor countries because much of the biodiversity of the West has vanished," she writes, giving rise to Western companies asserting intellectual-property claims over medicines used by indigenous communities for hundreds of years.
(85) Thus, both critics of biocolonialism
and patent law policy-makers subscribe to a clear boundary between nature and culture.
Debra Harry, executive director of the Indigenous Peoples Council on Biocolonialism
, told a press briefing "the CBD was enacted at a time when it became obvious that genetic resources held tremendous value.
Issues and Arguments: Biopiracy, Biocolonialism
, and Scientific
"Governments have a long history of trying to divest indigenous peoples of their land rights and undermine their cultural integrity," says Debra Harry, executive director of the Indigenous People's Council on Biocolonialism
, which opposes the project.