The new gene is inserted in individual cells by using methods like bioballistics or Agrobacterium; d).
The other method of great importance in transgenesis is bioballistics (bombardment of cells with micro-projectiles), which occurred because the Agrobacterium tumefaciens bacteria was unable to function in monocotyledonous species, which constitute an important group of cereals.
Bioballistics is considered a universal gene transference method and given that because it is a physical method it is not linked to any biological condition and can be used with different types of organisms.
A problem posed by this technique (bioballistics) is that two types of cells are generated: transformed and non-transformed within the same organ.
Particle bombardment technology, also known as biological biolistics or bioballistics
, is a nonviral, physical gene delivery method in which target cells are transfected using DNA-coated particles.