Laboratory shear tests have validated that PLTS is consistent with a shear-thinning pseudo-plastic fluid rather than a time-invariant Bingham plastic
The Bingham plastic model has proven useful in modeling flow mode dampers utilizing MR fluids.
For most engineering applications a simple Bingham plastic model is effective at describing the essential, field-dependent fluid characteristics.
A Bingham plastic material is characterized by a dynamic yield stress, Ty.
Fly ash originating from the hazardous waste treatment facility in Dorog (Table 13) behaved as Bingham plastic over 10% of volumetric concentration and it was a time dependent rheopectic fluid.
Even though the Dorog fly ash was Bingham plastic, Indian red mud was determined to be Newtonian over a short time period; however its shear resistance was increased over time as well.
Generally, these suspensions become non-Newtonian fluids over 20% of volumetric concentration and the viscosity like parameter (absolute viscosity--Newtonian, coefficient of rigidity Bingham plastic, consistency index--Pseudoplastic) gets exponentially higher.
For laminar flow in circular pipes, the analysis of the flow of a Bingham plastic is a classical case that has been known for decades; but turbulent flow, and the transition between the two types, has been more resistant to analysis.
As noted above, the simple two-parameter model called the Bingham plastic is often employed to quantify this behaviour.
The constitutive equation which relates the stress to the deformation for the Bingham plastic fluid is as follows:
 have studied numerically the motion of a sphere through a Bingham plastic fluid within an infinite medium, whereas the present results and that of Atapattu et al.
Zisis, "Flow of Bingham plastics
in a lid-driven square cavity," Journal of Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics, vol.