Bile ducts

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a clear yellow or orange fluid produced by the liver. It is concentrated and stored in the gallbladder, and is poured into the small intestine via the bile ducts when needed for digestion. Bile helps in alkalinizing the intestinal contents and plays a role in the emulsification, absorption, and digestion of fat; its chief constituents are conjugated bile salts, cholesterol, phospholipid, bilirubin, and electrolytes. The bile salts emulsify fats by breaking up large fat globules into smaller ones so that they can be acted on by the fat-splitting enzymes of the intestine and pancreas. A healthy liver produces bile according to the body's needs and does not require stimulation by drugs. Infection or disease of the liver, inflammation of the gallbladder, or the presence of gallstones can interfere with the flow of bile.
bile acids steroid acids derived from cholesterol; classified as primary, those synthesized in the liver, e.g., cholic and chenodeoxycholic acids, or secondary, those produced from primary bile acids by intestinal bacteria and returned to the liver by enterohepatic circulation, e.g., deoxycholic and lithocholic acids.
bile ducts the canals or passageways that conduct bile. There are three bile ducts: the hepatic duct drains bile from the liver; the cystic duct is an extension of the gallbladder and conveys bile from the gallbladder. These two ducts may be thought of as branches that drain into the “trunk,” or common bile duct. The common bile duct passes through the wall of the small intestine at the duodenum and joins with the pancreatic duct to form the hepatopancreatic ampulla, or ampulla of Vater. At the opening into the small intestine there is a sphincter that automatically controls the flow of bile into the intestine.

The bile ducts may become obstructed by gallstones, benign or malignant tumors, or a severe local infection. Various disorders of the gallbladder or bile ducts are often diagnosed by ultrasonography, radionuclide imaging, and x-ray examination of the gallbladder and bile ducts using a special contrast medium so that these hollow structures can be clearly outlined on the x-ray film.
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.

Bile ducts

Tubes that carry bile, a thick yellowish-green fluid that is made by the liver, stored in the gallbladder, and helps the body digest fats.
Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
The anatomical variations of the extrahepatic bile ducts are very important during laparoscopic surgery and liver surgery and transplantation (1,2).
While the VA has granted service connection for bile duct cancer in certain cases, cholangiocarcinoma is not recognized as a presumptive illness due to military service.
A systematic literature review was conducted using a PubMed search with keywords "bile duct adenoma, peribiliary hamartoma, or biliary adenoma".
The strategies for minimally invasive treatment for intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile duct stones can be summarized as follows:[4] (1) For intrahepatic bile duct stones, according to the distribution of the stones, stenosis of the biliary tract, or whether hepatic fibrosis and atrophy are combined, laparoscopic liver resection, laparoscopic common bile duct exploration (LCBDE), or percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopy may be chosen.
When selective cannulation was achieved, a diagnostic cholangiogram was performed to assess the size and number of bile duct stones, the diameter of CBD.
As shown in Table 3, accessing the biliary branch is difficult even if the Swing Tip is used, especially in crooked bile ducts such as the B6 bile duct because the Swing Tip has a limited range of motion.
The viscera were exposed, the duodenum was exteriorized, and the common bile duct was identified and dissected.
Abdominal ultrasound showed no evidence of intrahepatic or extrahepatic biliary ductal dilatation but did note a linear filling defect within the common bile duct (CBD) as seen in Figure 1.
(b) Oblique reconstruction showing mass relationship with the bile ducts.
In patients without cholangiographic intrahepatic bile duct strictures but involvement of the extrahepatic bile ducts, a cholangioscopic bile duct forceps biopsy can sometimes be of diagnostic value [26].
The bile ducts do not have a constant structure, so the surgeons can have undesired surprise during the gastrointestinal system surgery.