bicuspid aortic valve


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Acronyms, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.

valve

 [valv]
a membranous fold in a canal or passage that prevents backward flow of material passing through it.
aortic valve a semilunar valve that separates the left ventricle and the aorta; it opens with end diastole, causing the second heart sound.
atrioventricular v's the cardiac valves between the right atrium and right ventricle (tricuspid valve) and the left atrium and left ventricle (mitral valve).
bicuspid valve mitral valve.
bicuspid aortic valve a congenital anomaly of the aortic valve, caused by incomplete separation of two of the three cusps; it is generally asymptomatic early in life but is predisposed to calcification and stenosis later on.
Braschi valve a one-way valve put into the inspiratory limb of a ventilator circuit in order to measure the intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure.
cardiac v's valves that control flow of blood through and from the heart.
coronary valve a valve at the entrance of the coronary sinus into the right atrium.
flail mitral valve a mitral valve having a cusp that has lost its normal support (as in ruptured chordae tendineae) and flutters in the blood stream.
heart v's cardiac valves.
Heimlich valve a small one-way valve used for chest drainage, emptying into a flexible collection device; the valve prevents return of gases or fluids into the pleural space. The Heimlich valve is less than 13 cm (5 inches) long and facilitates patient ambulation; it can be used in many patients instead of a traditional water seal drainage system.
ileocecal valve (ileocolic valve) the valve guarding the opening between the ileum and cecum.
mitral valve the cardiac valve between the left atrium and left ventricle, usually having two cusps (anterior and posterior). Called also bicuspid valve.
Valves of the heart. The right heart pumps the venous blood into the lungs. The oxygenated blood returns from the lungs into the left atrium and is propelled by the left ventricle into the aorta. The insets show closed valves: the tricuspid valve has three leaflets, whereas the mitral valve has two leaflets. The aortic and pulmonary artery valves have three leaflets and resemble one another except for the fact that the coronary arteries originate from behind the cusps in the aorta. From Damjanov, 1996.
posterior urethral valve any of various types of congenital folds across the proximal part of the male urethra near the seminal colliculus, the most common cause of urethral obstruction in male infants.
pulmonary valve (pulmonic valve) the pocketlike cardiac valve that protects the orifice between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery.
pyloric valve a prominent fold of mucous membrane at the pyloric orifice of the stomach.
semilunar v's the cardiac valves that have semilunar cusps; see aortic valve and pulmonary valve.
thebesian valve coronary valve.
tricuspid valve the cardiac valve guarding the opening between the right atrium and right ventricle.
valve of vein (venous v's) any of the small cusps or folds found in the tunica intima of many veins, serving to prevent backflow of blood.

fa·mil·i·al a·or·tic ec·ta·si·a syn·drome

the concurrence as an autosomal dominant trait of bicuspid aortic valve often with premature calcification, ectasia, and dissection of the aorta and, rarely, coarctation of the aorta. Superficially resembles the Marfan syndrome.

bicuspid aortic valve

A congenital heart defect in which the aortic annulus has 2 instead of 3 semilunar valves, a finding in up to 3% of the population. The male:female ratio is 4:1; 20% of those with a bicuspid aortic valves have other cardiac defects—e.g., patent ductus arteriosus or aortic coarctation. The valve is subjected to abnormal hemodynamic stress, leading to leaflet thickening, calcification and aortic stenosis; in absence of other cardiac defects, bicuspid aortic valves are not associated with increased mortality.

Molecular pathology
BAVs are associated with an increase in aneurysms of the ascending aorta, which is attributed to an alteration of the extracellular matrix and an increase in the ratio of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2 to tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)1.

bicuspid aortic valve

Cardiology A congenital heart defect in which the aortic annulus has 2 instead of 3 semilunar valves, seen in 3% of the population; ♂:♀, 4:1; 20% of those with a BAV have other cardiovascular disease–eg, PDA or aortic coarctation; the valve is subjected to abnormal hemodynamic stress, leading to leaflet thickening, calcification and aortic stenosis. See Aortic stenosis.
References in periodicals archive ?
Echocardiography showed bicuspid aortic valve with fusion of the right and non-coronary cusp, unruptured aneurysm of left coronary sinus of Valsalva bulging into left atrium, gross dilation of aortic root (aortic annulus: 2.03 cm, aortic sinus: 3.2 cm, Z-score: +3.3) and ascending aorta (4.7cm) (figure 1A and 1B), severe aortic stenosis (aortic valve area: 0.6 [cm.sup.2]), moderate aortic regurgitation, with no other valvular lesion, and a normal ejection fraction.
Her CT scan findings suggested bicuspid aortic valve, severe juxtaductal aortic coarctation, and postcoarctated descending thoracic aorta (DTA) that was mildly dilated.
Leatham, "The natural history of a non-stenotic bicuspid aortic valve," British Heart Journal, vol.
Congenital heart disease Gene mutation Aortic valve degenerative RBP-J[kappa] disease Left ventricular outflow Notch 1 tract defects Bicuspid aortic valve disease Notch 1-4, Jagged 1, Hes 1, Hey 1, Hey 2 Aortic valve calcification Notch 1, Hey 1, Hey 2 Pulmonic stenosis Jagged 1 Tetralogy of Fallot Jagged 1 Mitral valve disease HRT 2 Tricuspid valve disease HRT 2 Ventricular septal defect HRT 2 Atrial septal defect HRT 2 Pericardial distension Notch 1, RBP-J[kappa] Alagille syndrome Notch 2, Jagged 1, HRT 2, Hey 2 RBP-J[kappa]: recombination signal binding protein for immunoglobulin J[kappa] region; Hes: hairy and enhancer of split: Hey: hairy/enhancer of split-related with YRPW motif; HRT: hairy-related transcription.
Congenital cardiac anomalies, such as patent ductus arteriosus, bicuspid aortic valve, mitral valve prolapse, and atrial septal defect, may be associated.
North Northumberland coroner, Tony Brown, recorded a narrative verdict, saying "post-mortem examination established that Dr Fletcher's death may have been due to natural causes, as a result of a bicuspid aortic valve, barotrauma due to rapid though controlled ascent to the surface, or a combination of these causes."
Her medical history included mild learning difficulties, a bicuspid aortic valve, recurrent urinary tract infections, and severe constipation as a child that required a colostomy, which was later reversed.
A diagnosis of RHD was made by echo-doppler if one or more of the following were present: a) Mitral stenosis; b) Mitral regurgitation (MR) and / or aortic regurgitation (AR) with regurgitation jet length of more than 2 cm in at least two echo planes, along with abnormal valve morphology (a bicuspid aortic valve to be excluded in cases with AR); c) MR and / or AR with regurgitant jet length of 1 -2 cm, and abnormal valve morphology, in the presence of a history suggestive of rheumatic fever.
New coverage includes genetic, molecular and cellular mechanisms of disease; bicuspid aortic valve disease; and ischemic mitral regurgitation.
Aaron Boone played for Houston this year, just five months after undergoing open heart surgery to replace a bicuspid aortic valve. Boone has enjoyed a 12 year Major League career with the Reds, Yankees, Indians, Marlins, Nationals and Astros highlighted by an appearance in the 2003 MLB All-Star Game.
We describe herein a Turkish ancestry 18-year-old female familial thrombocytopenia patient who presented with additional disease features of umbilical hernia, bicuspid aortic valve, patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), ovarian agenesis and epilepsia.
Left ventricular outflow obstruction: Subaortic stenosis, bicuspid aortic valve, supravalvular aortic stenosis and coarctation of the aorta.