sodium bicarbonate

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sodium

 [so´de-um]
a chemical element, atomic number 11, atomic weight 22.990, symbol Na. (See Appendix 6.) Sodium is the major cation of the extracellular fluid, constituting 90 to 95 per cent of all cations in the blood plasma and interstitial fluid; it thus determines the osmolality of the extracellular fluid. The serum sodium concentration is normally about 140 mEq/L. If the sodium level and osmolality fall, osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus are stimulated and cause the release of antidiuretic hormone from the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland. This hormone increases the absorption of water in the collecting ducts of the kidneys so that water is conserved while sodium and other electrolytes are excreted in the urine. If the sodium level and osmolality rise, neurons in the thirst center of the hypothalamus are stimulated. The thirsty person then drinks enough water to restore the osmolality of the extracellular fluid to the normal level.



A decrease in the serum sodium concentration (hyponatremia) can occur in a variety of conditions. It is often associated with deficient fluid volume due to diarrhea or vomiting when water is replaced faster than sodium. It can also occur in syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone, in the late stages of congestive heart failure or cirrhosis of the liver, in acute or chronic renal failure, and in diuretic therapy. An increase in the serum sodium concentration (hypernatremia) occurs when insensible water loss is not replaced by drinking, as in a comatose patient with diabetes insipidus.
sodium acetate a source of sodium ions for hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis, as well as a systemic and urinary alkalizer.
sodium ascorbate an antiscorbutic vitamin and nutritional supplement for parenteral administration. It is also used as an aid to deferoxamine therapy in the treatment of chronic iron toxicity.
sodium benzoate an antifungal agent also used in a test of liver function.
sodium bicarbonate NaHCO3, a white powder commonly found in households. It has a wide variety of uses in chemistry, in pharmaceuticals, and in consumer products. It is sometimes taken in water as a remedy for acid indigestion but should not be used regularly since when taken in excess it tends to cause alkalosis. It can be mixed with water and applied as a paste for relief of pain in treatment of minor burns and insect bites and stings. A cupful in the bath water may help relieve itching caused by an allergic reaction. Called also baking soda and bicarbonate of soda.
sodium biphosphate monobasic sodium phosphate.
sodium carbonate a compound now used primarily as an alkalizing agent in pharmaceuticals; it has been used as a lotion or bath in the treatment of scaly skin, and as a detergent.
sodium chloride common table salt, a necessary constituent of the body and therefore of the diet, involved in maintaining osmotic tension of blood and tissues; uses include replenishment of electrolytes in the body, irrigation of wounds and body cavities, enema, inhaled mucolytic, topical osmotic ophthalmic agent, and preparation of pharmaceuticals. Called also salt.
sodium citrate a sodium salt of citric acid, used as an anticoagulant for blood or plasma that is to be fractionated or for blood that is to be stored. It is also administered orally as a urinary alkalizer.
dibasic sodium phosphate a salt of phosphoric acid; used alone or in combination with other phosphate compounds, it is given intravenously as an electrolyte replenisher, orally or rectally as a laxative, and orally as a urinary acidifier and for prevention of kidney stones.
sodium ferric gluconate a hematinic used especially in treatment of hemodialysis patients with iron deficiency anemia who are also receiving erythropoietin therapy. Administered by intravenous injection.
sodium fluoride a dental caries preventative used in fluoridation of drinking water or applied topically to teeth. Topical preparations include gels (sodium fluoride and phosphoric acid gel, also called APF gel) and solutions (sodium fluoride and acidulated phosphate topical solution, also called APF solution).
sodium glutamate monosodium glutamate.
sodium hydroxide NaOH, a strongly alkaline and caustic compound; used as an alkalizing agent in pharmaceuticals.
sodium hypochlorite a compound having germicidal, deodorizing, and bleaching properties; used in solution to disinfect utensils, and in diluted form (Dakin's solution) as a local antibacterial.
sodium iodide a compound used as a source of iodine.
sodium lactate a compound used in solution to replenish body fluids and electrolytes.
monobasic sodium phosphate
1. a monosodium salt of phosphoric acid; used in buffer solutions, as a urinary acidifier, as a laxative, and as a source of phosphorus in hypophosphatemia, often in combination with potassium phosphate.
2. a monosodium salt of phosphoric acid; used in buffer solutions. Used alone or in combination with other phosphate compounds, it is given intravenously as an electrolyte replenisher, orally or rectally as a laxative, and orally as a urinary acidifier and for prevention of kidney stones.
sodium monofluorophosphate a dental caries preventative applied topically to the teeth.
sodium nitrite an antidote for cyanide poisoning; also used as a preservative in cured meats and other foods.
sodium nitroprusside an antihypertensive agent used in the treatment of acute congestive heart failure and of hypertensive crisis and to produce controlled hypotension during surgery; also used as a reagent.
sodium phenylbutyrate an agent used as adjunctive treatment to control the hyperammonemia of pediatric urea cycle enzyme disorders.
sodium phosphate any of various compounds of sodium and phosphoric acid; usually specifically dibasic sodium phosphate.
sodium polystyrene sulfonate an ion-exchange resin used for removal of potassium ions in hyperkalemia, administered orally or rectally.
sodium propionate a salt used as an antifungal preservative in foods and pharmaceuticals and as a topical antifungal agent.
sodium salicylate see salicylate.
sodium sulfate a cathartic and laxative.
sodium thiosulfate a compound used intravenously as an antidote for cyanide poisoning, in foot baths for prophylaxis of ringworm, and as a topical antifungal agent for tinea versicolor. Also used in measuring the volume of extracellular body fluid and the renal glomerular filtration rate.

sodium bicarbonate

Arm & Hammer Baking Soda, Bell/ans, Citrocarbonate, Naturalyte (CA)

Pharmacologic class: Fluid and electrolyte agent

Therapeutic class: Alkalinizer, antacid

Pregnancy risk category C

Action

Restores body's buffering capacity; neutralizes excess acid

Availability

Injection: 4% (2.4 mEq/5 ml), 4.2% (5 mEq/10 ml), 5% (297.5 mEq/500 ml), 7.5% (8.92 mEq/10 ml and 44.6 mEq/50 ml), 8.4% (10 mEq/10 ml and 50 mEq/50 ml)

Oral solution (Citrocarbonate): sodium 30.46 mEq/3.9 g and sodium citrate 1.82 g/3.9 g

Tablets: 325 mg, 650 mg

Indications and dosages

Metabolic acidosis

Adults and children: 2 to 5 mEq/kg by I.V. infusion over 4 to 8 hours. However, dosage highly individualized based on patient's condition and blood pH and carbon dioxide content.

Urinary alkalization

Adults: Initially, 4 g P.O.; then 1 to 2 g P.O. q 4 hours

Children: 1 to 10 mEq/kg/day P.O. in divided doses given q 4 to 6 hours

Renal tubular acidosis

Adults: For distal tubular acidosis, 0.5 to 2 mEq/kg P.O. daily in four to five equal doses. For proximal tubular acidosis, 4 to 10 mEq/kg P.O. daily in divided doses.

Antacid

Adults: 300 mg to 2 g P.O. up to q.i.d., given with a glass of water

Contraindications

• Hypocalcemia

• Metabolic or respiratory alkalosis

• Hypernatremia

• Hypokalemia

• Severe pulmonary edema

• Seizures

• Vomiting resulting in chloride loss

• Diuretic use resulting in hypochloremic alkalosis

• Acute ingestion of mineral acids (with oral form)

Precautions

Use cautiously in:

• renal insufficiency, heart failure, hypertension, peptic ulcer, cirrhosis, toxemia

• pregnant patients.

Administration

• For I.V. use, infuse at prescribed rate using controlled infusion device.

Don't give concurrently with calcium or catecholamines (such as norepinephrine, dobutamine, dopamine). If patient is receiving sodium bicarbonate with any of these drugs, flush I.V. line thoroughly after each dose to prevent contact between drugs.

Adverse reactions

CNS: headache, irritability, confusion, stimulation, tremors, twitching, hyperreflexia, weakness, seizures of alkalosis, tetany

CV: irregular pulse, edema, cardiac arrest

GI: gastric distention, belching, flatulence, acid reflux, paralytic ileus

GU: renal calculi

Metabolic: hypokalemia, fluid retention, hypernatremia, hyperosmolarity (with overdose), metabolic alkalosis Respiratory: slow and shallow respirations, cyanosis, apnea

Other: weight gain, pain and inflammation at I.V. site

Interactions

Drug-drug. Anorexiants, flecainide, mecamylamine, methenamine, quinidine, sympathomimetics: increased urinary alkalization, decreased renal clearance of these drugs

Chlorpropamide, lithium, methotrexate, salicylates, tetracycline: increased renal clearance and decreased efficacy of these drugs

Enteric-coated tablets: premature gastric release of these drugs

Drug-diagnostic tests. Lactate, potassium, sodium: increased levels

Drug-herbs. Oak bark: decreased sodium bicarbonate action

Patient monitoring

When giving I.V., closely monitor arterial blood gas results and electrolyte levels.

Stay alert for signs and symptoms of metabolic alkalosis and electrolyte imbalances.

• Monitor fluid intake and output. Assess for fluid overload.

Avoid rapid infusion, which may cause tetany.

• Watch for inflammation at I.V. site.

Patient teaching

• Tell patient using drug as antacid that too much sodium bicarbonate can cause systemic problems. Urge him to use only the amount approved by prescriber.

• Advise patient not to take oral form with milk. Caution him to avoid the herb oak bark.

• Tell patient sodium bicarbonate interferes with action of many common drugs. Instruct him to notify all prescribers if he's taking oral sodium bicarbonate on a regular basis.

• As appropriate, review all other significant and life-threatening adverse reactions and interactions, especially those related to the drugs, tests, and herbs mentioned above.

so·di·um bi·car·bon·ate

used as a gastric and systemic antacid, to alkalize urine, and for washes of body cavities.

sodium bicarbonate

n.
See baking soda.

so·di·um bi·car·bon·ate

(sōdē-ŭm bī-kahrbŏ-nāt)
Used as a gastric and systemic antacid, to alkalize urine, and for washes of body cavities.

sodium bicarbonate

Baking soda. An antacid drug used to relieve indigestion, heartburn and the pain of peptic ulcer. Sodium bicarbonate is not a preferred antacid as it leads to the production of carbon dioxide and ‘rebound’ acid production.

so·di·um bi·car·bon·ate

(sōdē-ŭm bī-kahrbŏ-nāt)
Agent used as a gastric and systemic antacid, to alkalize urine, and for washes of body cavities.
Synonym(s): baking soda.
References in periodicals archive ?
Available from liverpoolandbiscay.com for pounds 7.751 teaspoon bicarbonate soda 75g unsalted butter cut into cubes 1 clove garlic finely crushed 2 eggs 4 teaspoons finely chopped chives 225g self-raising flour 1 carton of cottage cheese
Twitter: vishdlish Carrot and pea fritters with green mango chutney Serves 4 300g carrots, grated 1 large red onion, grated 1/2 cup frozen peas, defrosted 100g gram flour 1/4 tsp bicarbonate soda 4 cloves garlic, minced 1 inch ginger, grated Sparkling water 1/2 tsp coriander powder 1/4 tsp turmeric Method Drop grated carrot, onion and peas into a large bowl and stir in the gram flour, coriander powder, cumin, turmeric, bicarbonate of soda, cinnamon and chilli.
Sprinkle teaspoon of bicarbonate soda into each one, well - and leave overnight.
1 teaspoon bicarbonate soda 75g unsalted butter chopped into cubes 1 teaspoon vanilla compound 2 eggs 160g unrefined organic caster sugar 225g self raising flour
Serves eight Ingredients 250g (8oz) dried pitted dates 75g (3oz) unsalted butter 200g (6oz) caster sugar 300g (10 oz) plain flour sifted One teaspoon baking powder One teaspoon bicarbonate soda Two medium eggs 50g (2oz) black treacle One teaspoon cinnamon One teaspoon ground ginger 100g (4oz) broken walnuts lightly toasted For the sauce 250g (8oz) unsalted butter 250g (8oz) caster sugar 600ml (1pt) double cream Method Roughly chop dates and bring to a boil in a pan with a little water, the black treacle and the bicarbonate of soda.
Stir together 400g plain flour, 50g oat bran, 1tsp salt and 1tsp bicarbonate soda. Rub in 25g white fat.