Bethesda system

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Be·thes·da sys·tem

a system for reporting cervical or vaginal cytologic findings and diagnoses.
[Bethesda, Maryland, site of NIH]

In the 1940s George Papanicolaou divided cytologic findings on stained cervical smears into five classes, ranging from I (normal) to V (carcinoma). Classes II through IV represented increasing degrees of premalignant squamous cellular atypia. Later workers modified the system by introducing the terms dysplasia (mild, moderate, severe) and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) (grades 1 through 3). Papanicolaou (Pap) smear findings reported according to this nomenclature showed poor reproducibility between observers and even between separate readings by the same observer. In addition, there was little correlation between diagnostic categories and treatment options. In 1988 the National Cancer Institute sponsored a workshop in Bethesda, Maryland, to establish a more useful system. The Bethesda system was first used in 1991 and soon became standard throughout the world. Several revisions were made in 2001. The standard format for reporting cervical cytology findings according to the Bethesda system comprises three elements: 1. a statement of the adequacy of the specimen for examination (satisfactory or unsatisfactory); 2. general categorization (negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy; epithelial cell abnormality; or other); and 3. descriptive diagnosis, elaborating on the general categorization and including mention of all significant abnormalities, as well as of the patients hormonal status (when vaginal cells are present in the smear). A specimen that is negative for an intraepithelial lesion or malignancy may be reported as showing evidence of pathogenic organisms (for example, Trichomonas, Candida, cellular changes consistent with herpes simplex virus infection) or of nonneoplastic tissue changes (for example, inflammation, atrophy). Epithelial cell abnormalities may involve either squamous or glandular cells. The system replaces numeric designations with descriptive diagnoses of cellular changes. Squamous cell changes formerly called mild dysplasia or CIN 1, including cellular atypia characteristic of human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection, are designated low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL). The category of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) encompasses what were formerly called moderate and severe dysplasia or CIN 2 and CIN 3. Cytologic changes that suggest a squamous intraepithelial lesion but are quantitatively or qualitatively insufficient for a definitive interpretation are divided into atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) and those with changes suggestive but not diagnostic of high-grade squamous cell intraepithelial lesions (ASC-H). It is estimated that 50 million Pap smears are performed annually in the U.S., of which 5-10% are reported as showing either ASC-US or ASC-H. In women with ASC-US, testing for high-risk HPV types by DNA probe is more sensitive than repeat thin-layer Pap smear in detecting high-grade lesions or cancer. The finding of ASC-H, LSIL, or HSIL is an indication for colposcopy and directed biopsy.

A system for reporting results from pap smears, which provides a uniform format for cervical and vaginal cytologic specimens, classifies noninvasive lesions and standardizes the lexicon for cervical/vaginal cytology reports, providing clinically relevant information

Be·thes·da sys·tem

, Bethesda classification (bĕ-thez'dă sis'tĕm, klas'i-fi-kā'shŭn)
A comprehensive system for reporting findings on cervical Papanicolaou smears; includes observations on the adequacy of the specimen, benign cellular changes (inflammation, infection), changes in squamous or glandular epithelial cells reflecting atypia or malignancy, and hormonal status.
[Bethesda, Maryland, site of NIH]


city in Maryland.
Bethesda system - classification system for cervical Papanicolaou smears; originated in Bethesda, Maryland.
Bethesda unit - measure of inhibitor activity; originated in Bethesda, Maryland.
References in periodicals archive ?
One should emphasize, however, that one of the four parts of the new Bethesda classification specifies such inflammatory lesions as: Trichomonas vaginalis, Candida, Actinomyces, Chlamydia, cellular changes consistent with HSV infection, and changes of bacterial flora.
Pap Smear Finding according to Bethesda Classification Diagnosis Number of Patients Percentage (%) Inadequate 35 5 NILM Normal 107 15.
The intention was to develop a system of classification of thyroid FNA similar in scope to the Bethesda Classification for gynecologic cervical cytology.
The target population includes categories III (atypia of indeterminate significance or follicular lesion of indeterminate significance (AUS / FLUS)) and IV (follicular neoplasm or suspicion of follicular neoplasm (FN / SFN)) of the Bethesda classification.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate Bethesda Classification for reporting thyroid by recording interobserver reproducibility.
Comparison of the Bethesda and the British Society for Clinical Cytology (BSCC) classification systems for cervical cytology (8) Bethesda classification BSCC classification Negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy Negative Unsatisfactory for evaluation Inadequate Atypical squamous cells of undetermined Borderline significance (ASC-US) nuclear change Atypical squamous cells cannot exclude H-SIL (ASC-H) Atypical endocervical, endometrial or glandular cells (not otherwise specified or specify) Atypical endocervical or glandular cells favour neoplasia Low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (L-SIL) Mild dyskaryosis High-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (H-SIL) Moderate dyskaryosis Severe dyskaryosis Squamous cell carcinoma Severe dyskaryosis ?
Pap results were read in Sao Paulo using traditional classification methods, then again in Montreal using the Bethesda classification system.
In the Bethesda classification system, abnormal Paps are labeled LSIL (low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions), HSIL (high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions), or ASCUS (atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance).
The 510(k) application used data from a clinical trial that measured cellularity, (whether a sufficient number of cells was collected), adequacy (the presence of cells representative of the endocervix and transformation zone - the two areas of the cervix where cervical cancer typically starts), reporting according to the Bethesda Classification System, and patient comfort.
Wang et al propose a 6-tier cytopathologic classification system, similar to the Bethesda classification for thyroid fine needle aspiration, for fine-needle aspiration biopsy of salivary gland lesions.
On further analysis of Pap smear results according to Bethesda Classification, we found that inflammatory Pap results were found in 58.