Chewing betel quid
and the risk of metabolic disease, cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality: a meta-analysis.
Diagnosis is based on clinical findings, location of the lesion, h/o trauma, poor oral hygiene, h/o chewing of betel quid
(Betel leaf, areca nut, tobacco, slaked lime and catechu in various combination or all together).
Severityof periodontal disease in individuals chewing betel quid
with and without tobacco.
The relevant risk factors for contracting OC include betel quid
chewing, tobacco use, alcohol consumption, poor diet, biological infections, and oral chronic inflammation. Although many advances in clinical cancer treatments have been made, good outcomes have not been reflected in mortality figures since the 1960s, with the 5-year survival rate hovering at approximately 50%. In developing countries/regions, featuring a cultural practice of betel quid
chewing, there has been a high incidence of OC, mainly in southeast Asian countries such as India, Sri Lanka, and Thailand, as well as in southern China, such as in Taiwan area, Hunan Province and Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region.
with tobacco showed higher risk of developing oral cancer compared to those who chewed betel quid
(ii) Family history regarding HNC or any other cancer (iii) Stage of HNC (iv) Life style habits: tobacco smoking, chewing of betel quid
(pan), chaalia, pan masala, gutkha, smokeless tobacco and alcohol drinking.
Smokeless tobacco users estimated in India and Pakistan together are around 100 million.9 Common forms of SLT used in Pakistan include Paan (Betel quid
), Gutka, and Snuff, Naswar, Main Purhi and Mava.10 SLT use is integral to Pakistani culture.
(BQ) is an environmental carcinogen with human health toxicology.
(4) Rapid increase in the incidence of type 2 diabetes (DM2) in Papua New Guinea, coupled with compelling epidemiological evidence supporting a diabetogenic association with betel quid
(BQ) chewing has lead us to investigate dietary strategies that might offer protection from developing DM2.
 Nicotine and arecoline present in tobacco and betel quid
cause dyslipidemia and hypertension, resulting in CVD.
Aetilogical agents for oral cancer: betel quid
, arecanut and tobacco