About 65 to 75% of OSCC patients are linked to smoking, 30% with alcoholism and 26% with betel nut chewing
.6-8 Association between genetic factors, poor nutritional status, chronic viral and fungal infections, pre-existing oral disease and bad oral hygiene is also observed in other studies.9-11 Clinically lesion may be ulcerative, exophytic or verrucous.12 Site of involvement is typical for particular risk factor and area exposed to risk factor.13
When mum and dad wanted to get married, it was at a time when no self-respecting Chinese family would accept a native as a son-in-law, what more a betel nut chewing
Kayan from a longhouse along the Tutoh River up north.
Health authorities said chewing betel nut has no beneficial health effects and, according to a 2012 World Health Organization report, "a major effort needs to be made to provide decision-makers with evidence of the serious harm caused by betel nut chewing
, with or without tobacco"
Oral health practitioners can play a crucial role in counselling their patients for the cessation of smoking, drinking and betel nut chewing
. Ideally, the medications and dental materials should not be detrimental to the oral and general health of the patients and dental personnel.
Upon recruitment, a questionnaire was administered that requested the following information: date of birth; sex; education; marital status; occupation; history of cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, and betel nut chewing
; personal history of disease (including diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, chronic kidney disease, liver cirrhosis, and chronic hepatitis); and family history of T2DM.
Huang, "Betel nut chewing
is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in Taiwanese men," The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol.
More male current-smokers and past-smokers had a history of drinking alcohol compared with the male nonsmokers, and the male current-smokers exhibited a higher rate of betel nut chewing
than did the nonsmokers and past-smokers (Table 1).
She had a history of betel and betel nut chewing
with tobacco for a few decades.
 It should be noted that betel nut chewing
with or without tobacco shows the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) when compared with nonusers.
Most of the patients (47.7%) gave a history of tobacco chewing, followed by 42.1% smoking (either cigarette, bidi, or both), and 35.1% were betel nut chewing
, while 20.4% had a history of alcohol consumption.
Arecaidinism: betel nut chewing
in transcultural perspective.