As a matter of fact, we found out that the beta risk
is largely variable, depending on the industry and that it diminishes in terms of the venture's age.
Brooks (2007) Alternate Beta Risk
Estimation and Asset Pricing Test in Emerging Market: Case of Pakistan.
(1) Alternatively, as emphasized by Cochrane (2005) and Kan, Robotti, and Shanken (2009), one can use covariance risks instead of beta risks
in the CSR.
I also show that the Sharpe ratio and market beta risk
will be understated, but options and volatility-related swaps will be over-priced, when traders use closing prices to compute daily returns.
The returns and beta risks
are typically measured as averages over the evaluation period, and these averages are taken "unconditionally," or without regard to variations in the state of financial markets or the broader economy.
(Type II error) is concluding that the account is not in error (specifically concluding [absolute value of E]=0) when it is in error ([absolute value of E]>0).
The first approach involves measuring a surrogate variable of operating risk, and the second approach involves an analysis of fixed costs that provides a surrogate Beta risk
measure for the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) computation of cost of capital.
In a study on the effect of size on required return, Banz(1) found that returns for small companies were substantially higher, even after the adjustments for beta risk
had been made.
The book has a high rate of return, a low beta risk
, and a negative covariance with uninformed opinion.
Moreover, despite the positive association between size and both changes in total risk and beta risk
(controlled for the change in volume), only the relationship between size and change in total risk is statistically significant (in a t-test at the 5% level).