Commonly used tools include the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) (Buysse et al., 1989), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) (Johns, 1991), Berlin Questionnaire
(Netzer et al., 1999), and the STOP-BANG (Chung et al., 2014) questionnaire.
Various clinical prediction models-Sleep Apnoea Clinical Score (SACS) and Berlin Questionnaire
(BQ) have been put forward to prioritise severity of cases by screening.
Utility of the Berlin questionnaire
for predicting obstructive sleep apnea in individuals with treatment-resistant depression.
Preoperative and postoperative snoring scores were evaluated with Berlin questionnaire
Participants were also ineligible if they were shift workers, pregnant, or with suspected obstructive sleep apnea screened by Berlin questionnaire
of 2 or more categories.
In particular, the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, the STOP (Snoring, Tiredness, Observed Apnea, and High Blood Pressure) questionnaire, the STOPBANG (STOP plus BMI, Age, Neck Circumference, and Gender) questionnaire, the Berlin Questionnaire
, the Wisconsin Sleep Questionnaire, and the Multivariable Apnea Prediction (MVAP) tool have not been adequately validated in primary care settings.
The Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and Berlin Questionnaire
(BQ) were completed by patients unassisted following short instructions provided by the physician.
Other effective screening tools that have been used in the primary care population are the Berlin Questionnaire
(BQ), STOP-BANG questionnaire,  Sleep Apnea of Sleep Disorder Questionnaire (SA-SDQ)  and Apnea Risk Evaluation System (ARES).
Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS), Berlin Questionnaire
(BQ), STOP-BANG Questionnaire are some of frequently used scoring systems3.
Methods: We used the Berlin questionnaire
(BQ) for OSAS, the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) to determine the frequency of sleep disorders and their possible relationships with fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, and lipid levels.
A number of other screening questionnaires have since become popularised, amongst them are the Berlin questionnaire
(BQ), and the "Snoring, Tiredness, Observed apnea, and high blood Pressure" (STOP) questionnaire.
Sleep patterns were assessed by the Berlin Questionnaire
, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, and questions regarding napping behavior.