It is called a "bombardier" because it ejects a hot, highly noxious spray of aqueous benzoquinones
, oxygen, and steam as a defense mechanism against would-be predators (Aneshansley et al.
are potent electrophiles and acceptors in the Micheal reaction and can readily react with thiol enzymes such as thioredoxin and glutathione in cells (Hayashi et al.
When model predictions of adduct levels were plotted versus benzene exposure [greater than or equal to] 1 ppm, we observed marked downward concavity, particularly for adducts of the benzoquinones
Research in the ecological chemistry of harvestmen has so far been focused on gonyleptomorph Laniatores, all of which produce a mixture of benzoquinones
(at least 37 different molecules), while the chemistry of the defensive secretion is not known for even a single member of the Dyspnoi and is known for only one travunioid, Sclerobunus nondimorphicus Briggs 1971.
Previous studies on Miconia species have shown the presence of triterpenes, coumarins and benzoquinones
(Lowry, 1968; Macari et al.