(2018) assessed exposure to 10 phenols or their precursors (four parabens, triclosan, triclocarban, bisphenol S, two dichlorophenols, and benzophenone-3
) and reported decreased placental weight with prenatal exposure to triclosan among girls and increased placental weight with prenatal exposure to butylparaben among boys (Ferguson et al.
To prepare the photoprotective formulations, physical (zinc oxide and titanium dioxide) and chemical (octyl methoxycinnamate and benzophenone-3
) synthetic filters were suspended in propylene glycol and later added to the emulsion previously obtained, as shown in Table 2.
"is not only the most common benzophenone to cause positive patch test reactions, but it also is the most common UV filter, overall, to cause allergy," wrote lead author Ashley R.
Concentrations of the sunscreen agent benzophenone-3
in residents of the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2004.
These compounds were bisphenol A -- found in plastics -- and triclosan, benzophenone-3
and propyl, methyl, butyl and ethyl parabens, found in personal-hygiene products and some foods and medications.
, 3-Benzylidene camphor, Padimate 0 and homosalate are additional hormone disruptors commonly found in sunscreen.
The 22 endocrine-disrupting substances ChemSec added to the SIN list are: 3-benzylidene camphor, 4-meth-ylbenzylidene camphor, 4-nitrophenol, p-nitrophenol, benzophenone-l, benzophenone-2, benzophenone-3
, butyl-paraben, dicyclohexyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate, dihexyl phthalate, ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate, metam natrium, methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), pentachlorophenol, perchloroethylene, propylparaben, quadrosilan, resorcinol, tert-butylhydroxyanisole (BHA), thiram, and zineb.
3-benzylidene camphor; 4-methylbenzylidene camphor; 4-nitrophenol -;4,4[acute accent]- dihydroxybenzophenone; Benzophenone-2, CAS 131-55-5; Benzophenone-3
, CAS 131-57-7; Benzophenone-1 - 2 - 3; Butylparaben; Dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP); Diethyl phthalate (DEP); Dihexyl phthalate (DHP); Ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate; Metam natrium; Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE); Pentachlorophenol; Perchloroethylene; Propylparaben; Quadrosilan; Resorcinol; Tert-butylhydroxyanisole; Thiram; Zineb
Exposure to the sunscreen ingredient benzophenone-3
"was widespread in the U.S.
However, for the UV filter oxybenzone (or benzophenone-3
), the committee has concluded there is currently "insufficient data" to calculate a safe maximum levels, and has called for a dermal absorption study.
CHEMICAL sunscreens tend to be cheaper to produce and may include: oxybenzone (often listed as benzophenone-3
) and avobenzone (listed as butyl methoxydibenzolymethan).