research studies appeared in the United States Belmont Report
In 1978, it produced the landmark document known as the Belmont Report
The Belmont Report
lead to the requirement that all research institutions receiving federal funding must form an Institutional Review Board (IRB).
The Belmont report
 presents three fundamental concepts for ethical research: respect for persons, justice, and beneficence (or its corollary non-maleficence).
These codes and guidelines include The Nuremberg Code (1949), the Declaration of Helsinki (1964-2000), The Belmont Report
(US, 1979), Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS) and/ World Health Organization (WHO) International Guidelines (1993, 2002) and the ICH/GCP International Conference on Harmonization--Good Clinical Practice (EU, 1996).
This paradox illuminates a subtle distinction between the narrow concept of autonomy and the broader principle of "respect for persons," articulated in the enduringly influential Belmont Report
, (23) written in 1979 by the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research.
An appendix provides the Belmont Report
, which offers ethical principles and guidelines for the protection of human subjects of research.
This article identifies ethical concerns involved when service-learning students enter communities and draws on the Belmont Report
and three research methodologies invested in responsible university interaction with underserved populations-decolonial, feminist, and participatory--to offer a set of guidelines for practicing ethical service-learning.
Throughout the discussions that led to the Belmont Report
, the members of that commission ignored objections put forth by Albert Reiss and other social scientists.
During this time regulators celebrated The 1978 Belmont Report
as the apex of ethical research conduct, and it came to "wield totemic influence over the practice of research ethics.
The background section of the book offers a brief history of the IRB system and reviews principles of the Belmont Report
and the IRB review categories.
To decide whether investigators have an ethical obligation to address risks not directly related to research, it will be useful to consider the conceptual framework found in the Belmont Report
(National Commission 1979).