The tools we used were Leiter International Performance Scale, Revised (Leiter-R), Bayley Scales of Infant Development
, The test of visual motor integration (VMI).
Reliability and validity were determined for children below 3 months and from 3 to 24 months, with a simultaneous administration of the adapted version of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development
(BSID) by a psychologist as the gold standard.
19,20] The Bayley-I and Bayley-II, released in 1969 and 1993, respectively, have been followed by the updated Bayley Scales of Infant Development
Cognitive Assessment: General cognitive skills were assessed by administering the Bayley Scales of Infant Development
(Bayley, 1993) at sessions 1 and 3.
The study on adaptive skills and developmental outcomes was based on three measuring tools: International Adoption Questionnaires given to parents; the Bayley Scales of Infant Development
, which yielded a Mental Developmental Index (MDI) score and a Psychomotor Developmental Index (PDI) score; and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale, which measures personal and social skills used for everyday living.
Data were collected from children and their families in five rural Paraguayan barrios on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development
(2nd edition), the Home Observation for the Measurement of the Environment (HOME), and an author-developed measure of family resources, which included questions on breast-feeding practices, waste disposal levels of parental education, parental occupation and presence in the home, language spoken, possession of farm animals, and number of family members living in the home.
The BSID in Latin American Samples The mental (MDI) and motor (PDI) development scales of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development
(BSID) have been used for several decades to assess child development in Latin America.
29) Age-appropriate tests of individual cognition were used as the gold standard, including the Bayley Scales of Infant Development
, Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test (4th ed), and the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities.
In this population, complex parenchymal brain injury involving PHI and PVL is recognized as a significant predictor of severe developmental delay (Volpe 1998, 2001), commonly measured with standard infant developmental scales such as the Bayley Scales of Infant Development
Mental Development Index (BSID-MDI) (Bayley, 1969), the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children (WISC) (Wechsler, 1991), and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) (Sparrow, Balla, & Cicchetti, 1984), among others.
Cognitive development and language development were assessed directly using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development
, second edition (BSID-II; Bayley, 1993) at 14, 24, and 36 months.
Infants were tested at each follow-up visit, using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development
The PARCA is a two-part measure in which parents: (1) fill in a questionnaire about their children's cognitive abilities; and (2) administer an hour-long battery of cognitive tests based upon the Bayley Scales of Infant Development