infection in the recently rediscovered Atelopus mucubajiensis (Anura, Bufonidae), a critically endangered frog from the Venezuelan Andes.
The North American bullfrog as a reservoir for the spread of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis
A decade after the extinction of golden toads (Bufo periglenes), scientists discovered a new species of pathogenic chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis
Fungal pathogens have been increasingly associated with free-ranging epidemics in wildlife, including the well-known effects of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis
on frog populations globally (1) and white-nose syndrome in bats (2).
However, other pathogens, such as the frog-killing fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis
, have emerged with both clonal and recombining populations (13).
Another fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis
, is the etiologic agent responsible for chytridiomycosis (11), which currently threatens >50% of all amphibian species and is primarily responsible for the global decrease and extinction of >200 amphibian species in the past decade (12).
The relationship between the introduction of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis
, the international trade in amphibians and introduced amphibian species.
One of the major reasons for these declines is chytridiomycosis, caused by the chytridiomycete fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis
The sudden appearance of chytridiomycosis, the cause of amphibian deaths and population declines in several continents, suggests that its etiologic agent, the amphibian chytrid Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis
, was introduced into the affected regions.
The causative fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis
, produces aquatic, motile zoospores; infections have been achieved in experiments by exposing amphibians to water containing zoospores.
We report the causative agent, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis
, in North American bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) farmed for the international restaurant trade.
An isolate cultured from captive dendrobatid frogs has recently been used to fulfil Koch's postulates as a fatal pathogen of frogs and has been described as a new genus and species, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis