This frequency-dependent relationship is an important prerequisite for Batesian mimicry
by increasing the opportunity of learning by predators.
There is ample evidence that Pholidichthys leucotaenia swarms are protected by Batesian mimicry
of the highly venomous juvenile swarms of Plotosus (Clark et al.
As previously suggested, the selective pressure exerted by predators that do not use visual sense--for example, echinoderms or such molluscs as predatory opisthobranchs--might explain the apparent absence of Batesian mimicry
in nudibranchs (Tullrot and Sundberg, 1991; Avila, 1995; Wagele, 2004).
The Myrmarachne species' leg waving behavior analyzed in this study is likely to be a Batesian mimicry
trait, which--like other phenotypic traits in Batesian mimicry
--is under strong selection pressure exerted by predation (Mappes & Alatalo 1997).
Take the oft-cited classic case of Batesian mimicry
involving the dead-ringer resemblance between monarch and viceroy butterflies.
The premises for the origin of Batesian mimicry
have been widely discussed (Fisher 1930; Sheppard 1959; Wickler 1968; Nur 1970; Turner 1984, 1988; Turner et al.
is a form of defensive mimicry in which there is a resemblance of a palatable animal to a noxious animal such that a predator is deceived into avoiding the mimic because it mistakes it for the noxious model (Wickler, 1968; Edmunds, 2000).
For Myrmarachne, myrmecomorphy appears to function primarily as Batesian mimicry
, where predators that avoid the model (the ant) also avoid the mimic (the salticid).
Relatively harmless coexisting snakes in several different genera have a similar appearance, and most recent investigations have concluded that these are cases of Batesian mimicry
(Greene and McDiarmid 1981; Pough 1988a; Campbell and Lamar 1989; Savage and Slowinski 1992).
Such aposematically colored species may work as models in a Batesian Mimicry
system where palatable prey species, which have converged in appearance to the model, gain a measure of protection from their predators by masquerading as the toxic model.
Similar to European Zodarion spiders, species in this study exhibited Batesian mimicry
Bates' most well-known discovery is the principle of Batesian mimicry
-- when an animal disguises itself as another more dangerous species in self-defence.