Forer Effect

(redirected from Barnum effect)
Also found in: Wikipedia.
The observation that people give high accuracy ratings to descriptions of their personality that are said to have been tailored specifically for them, but which are in fact vague and general enough to apply to a wide range of people. The Forer effect partially explains the widespread acceptance of astrology, fortune telling, and some types of personality tests
References in periodicals archive ?
It is also similar to something called the Barnum Effect or the Forer Effect.
The Barnum effect was initially used in classrooms to illustrate gullibility and deception; however it later was used to teach ethics (Beins, 1993).
Another interesting finding is that the Barnum effect is more prevalent in positive statements and evaluations than in negative leading researchers to conclude that the Barnum effect is somewhat cancelled by a self-serving bias (Leung, Su & Morris, 2001; MacDonald & Standing, 2002).
The Forer test (Forer, 1949), or Barnum effect (Meehl, 1956) is often used to illustrate gullibility and ethics (Beins, 1993).
Using the Barnum effect to teach about ethics and deception in research.
Studies supporting the validity of the Barnum effect include Dickson and Kelly (1985), Dies (1972), Fichten & Sunerton (1983), and Forer (1949).
Cold reading" is a set of deceptive psychological techniques which are used in the psychic reading to create the impression that the reader has paranormal ability (Rowland, 2002); the Barnum effect technique, which has been described earlier, is one branch in this tree of "cold reading" (Dutton, 1988).
As we have seen, tarot cards might be seen as based upon paranormal influences that navigate the entire interaction between the reader and the client, just as they might be seen as based upon nonparanormal influences in which simple psychological processes, such as the Barnum effect and "cold reading," explain the information provided by the reader to the client.
The fast question may be tied theoretically to the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM; Petty & Cacioppo, 1986) of attitude change; the second may be tied to the Barnum effect (Meehl, 1956).
Another goal was to examine the relationship between TI favorability, using the Barnum effect as its theoretical basis, and counseling processes and outcomes.
The Barnum effect has been observed across a wide range of nonclinical samples and experimental situations (for reviews, see Dickson & Kelly, 1985; Furnham & Schofield, 1987; Snyder, Shenkel, & Lowery, 1977).
Professor French mentions the Barnum Effect - which supposes that dubious operators apply a broad sweep of possibilities, which eager clients then swoop on as specific to their situation.