Fatal Balamuthia mandrillaris
Meningoencephalitis in the Netherlands after Travel to The Gambia
Other protozoan parasites like Entamoeba histolytica, which can cause invasive amoebiasis in HIV positive patients, Giardia lamblia and free living amoeba like Acanthamoeba and Balamuthia mandrillaris
, which cause granulomatous encephalitis also cause more disseminated and severe disease in HIV positive patients.
Among them members of only genera Naegleria fowleri Acanthamoeba and Balamuthia mandrillaris
have been in association with human diseases formerly known as leptomyxid amoeba4.
However, other encephalitis pathogens have emerged or reemerged, including West Nile virus, Nipah virus, European tickborne encephalitis virus, enterovirus 71, and the ameba, Balamuthia mandrillaris
is another opportunistic, free-living ameba that, like Acanthamoeba, can cause chronic skin lesions and granulomatous amebic encephalitis (GAE) in individuals with either compromised or competent immune systems.
Amoebic meningoencephalitis is a rare, sporadic, central nervous system infection, caused by free-living amoeba, specifically Naegleria fowleri, Balamuthia mandrillaris
, and certain species of Acanthamoeba and Sappinia.
Effects of human serum on Balamuthia mandrillaris
interactions with human brain microvascular endothelial cells.
Case definitions for non-notifiable infections caused by free-living amebae (Naegleria fowleri, Balamuthia mandrillaris
, and Acanthamoeba spp.
Two patients who received organ transplants from the same donor have died of encephalitis caused by Balamuthia mandrillaris
, an amoeba found in soil.
Granulomatous amebic encephalitis due to Balamuthia mandrillaris
(Leptomyxiidae): report of four cases from Mexico.
Cultures were negative, but serologic testing was positive for Balamuthia mandrillaris
, with a high titer of 1:10,000.
transmitted through organ transplantation--Mississippi, 2009.