mandrillaris Meningoencephalitis in the Netherlands after Travel to The Gambia
Pharmaceutical company Profounda Inc reported on Wednesday the receipt of the US Food and Drug Administration's orphan drug designation for miltefosine for the treatment of Granulomatous Amebic Encephalitis (GAE), a serious infection of the brain and spinal cord caused by the Balamuthia
Other protozoan parasites like Entamoeba histolytica, which can cause invasive amoebiasis in HIV positive patients, Giardia lamblia and free living amoeba like Acanthamoeba and Balamuthia
mandrillaris, which cause granulomatous encephalitis also cause more disseminated and severe disease in HIV positive patients.
Among them members of only genera Naegleria fowleri Acanthamoeba and Balamuthia
mandrillaris have been in association with human diseases formerly known as leptomyxid amoeba4.
However, other encephalitis pathogens have emerged or reemerged, including West Nile virus, Nipah virus, European tickborne encephalitis virus, enterovirus 71, and the ameba, Balamuthia
Free-living amebae of the genera Acanthamoeba, Balamuthia
, Naegleria, and Sappinia are rare causes of infectious diseases in humans, with the exception of Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK), which is reported in more than one to two cases per 1 million contact lens wearers in the US annually.
Amoebic meningoencephalitis is a rare, sporadic, central nervous system infection, caused by free-living amoeba, specifically Naegleria fowleri, Balamuthia
mandrillaris, and certain species of Acanthamoeba and Sappinia.
Effects of human serum on Balamuthia
mandrillaris interactions with human brain microvascular endothelial cells.
Case definitions for non-notifiable infections caused by free-living amebae (Naegleria fowleri, Balamuthia
mandrillaris, and Acanthamoeba spp.
A triplex PCR assay that can differentiate Acanthamoeba from the other free-living amoeba associated with human infection, namely Naegleria and Balamuthia
, utilizes a design to detect a wide range of Acanthamoeba genotypes.
PCR for Acanthamoebas, Balamuthia
and Naegleria were negative when tested in our laboratory (7-9).
Among FLA there are facultative parasites of man and animals belonging to genera Acanthamoeba, Naegleria and Balamuthia
causing severe infections in the central nervous system.