bacteriophage

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bacteriophage

 [bak-te´re-o-fāj″]
a virus that destroys bacteria by lysis; several varieties exist, and usually each attacks only one kind of bacteria. Certain types attach themselves to the cell membrane of the bacterium and instill a charge of DNA into the cytoplasm. DNA carries the genetic code of the virus, so that rapid multiplication of the virus takes place inside the bacterium. The growing viruses act as parasites, using the metabolism of the bacterial cell for growth and development. Eventually the bacterial cell bursts, releasing many more viruses capable of destroying similar bacteria. Called also bacterial virus. adj., adj bacteriopha´gic.

With some bacteria, notably those of the Streptococcus family, infection by certain phages can dramatically alter pathogenicity, converging previously innocuous microbes into deadly pathogenic strains. The so-called “flesh-eating” viruses are a striking example. They are relatively harmless bacteria until new geletic material is incorporated via a phage or plasmid.
temperate bacteriophage one whose genetic material (prophage) becomes an intimate part of the bacterial genome, persisting and being reproduced through many cell division cycles; the affected bacterial cell is known as a lysogenic bacterium.

bac·te·ri·o·phage

(bak-tēr'ē-ō-fāj), Avoid the mispronunciation bak-te'rē-ō-fahzh. Avoid the misspelling and mispronunciation bacterialphage.
A virus with specific affinity for bacteria. Bacteriophages have been found in association with nearly all groups of bacteria, including the Cyanobacteria; like other viruses they contain either (but never both) RNA or DNA and vary in structure from the seemingly simple filamentous bacterial virus to relatively complex forms with contractile "tails"; their relationships to the host bacteria are highly specific and, as in the case of temperate bacteriophage, may be genetically intimate. Bacteriophages are named after the bacterial species, group, or strain for which they are specific, for example, corynebacteriophage, coliphage; a number of families are recognized and have been assigned provisional names: Corticoviridae, Cystoviridae, Fuselloviridae, Inoviridae, Leviviridae, Lipothrixviridae, Microviridae, Myoviridae, Plasmaviridae, Podoviridae, Styloviridae, and Tectiviridae.
See also: coliphage.
Synonym(s): phage
[bacterio- + G. phagō, to eat]

bacteriophage

(băk-tîr′ē-ə-fāj′)
n.
A virus that infects and lyses certain bacteria.

bac·te′ri·o·phag′ic (-făj′ĭk) adj.
bac·te′ri·oph′a·gy (-ŏf′ə-jē) n.

bac·te·ri·o·phage

(bak-tēr'ē-ō-fāj)
A virus with specific affinity for bacteria. Bacteriophages have been found in essentially all groups of bacteria; like other viruses they contain either RNA or DNA (but never both) and vary in structure from simple to complex; their relationships to host bacteria are specific and may be genetically intimate. Bacteriophages are named after the bacterial species, group, or strain for which they are specific, e.g., corynebacteriophage, coliphage.
See also: coliphage
Synonym(s): phage.
[bacterio- + G. phagō, to eat]

bacteriophage

or

phage

a VIRUS that attacks BACTERIA. Bacteriophage literally means ‘bacterium-eater’. Each bacteriophage may infect one or a few strains or species of bacteria. Broadly, bacteriophages can be classified as VIRULENT or TEMPERATE. The bacteriophages are a very heterogeneous group. Some are small and icosahedral, for example π X174, others are simple filaments, for example M13, whilst many are more complex with a polyhedral head and a tail, for example T-phages.

Others have no definite shape but are pleomorphic. The table below presents some examples of representative bacteriophages. Many bacteriophages are composed of a PROTEIN coat and the NUCLEIC ACID of the CHROMOSOME; however, some also have a LIPID component. The nucleic acid may be DNA or RNA, hence the names DNA or RNA phages respectively. The nucleic acid may be double-stranded or single-stranded. Bacteriophage DNA molecules are often used as cloning VECTORS in GENETIC ENGINEERING. See also LYTIC CYCLE, LYSOGENY, PLAQUE, TRANSDUCTION, GENERALIZED TRANSDUCTION and SPECIALIZED TRANSDUCTION.

bac·te·ri·o·phage

(bak-tēr'ē-ō-fāj)
A virus with specific affinity for bacteria; found in essentially all groups of bacteria; like other viruses, they contain either RNA or DNA (but never both) and vary in structure from simple to complex; their relationships to host bacteria are specific and may be genetically intimate.
Synonym(s): phage.
[bacterio- + G. phagō, to eat]
References in periodicals archive ?
Increasing interest in exploiting bacteriophages as a bio-control agent requires exploring reliable methods for long-term storage of bacteriophages.
Initial gene expression data indicate that bacteriophage treatment may downregulate pro-inflammatory genes and upregulate anti-inflammatory genes, which could be important for treatment of patients with sepsis to prevent septic shock and for patients with endocarditis to prevent destruction of heart tissue.
Bacteriophages are submicroscopic packages of DNA or RNA enclosed in a protein envelope, and each one is chosen for its ability to attach to a unique strain of unwanted bacteria in the intestines.
One of the most popular approaches is employing bacteriophages used as anti-infective agents to circumvent antibiotic resistance.
The site currently contains 106 bacteriophages discovered by Del Mar students.
Bacteriophages with a short latent period and large burst size may have a selective advantage over other phages due to high lytic activity [78].
Thus, enthusiasm for phage therapy began to decrease in the West during the 1940s and the 1950s, even if in the meanwhile Luria and Delbruck used bacteriophages as model organisms for their "Fluctuation test," leading to the understanding of the genetic basis of interactions between viruses and hosts and to the development of the first molecular techniques [16, 17].
Camp et al., "Biocontrol of Listeria monocytogenes on fresh-cut produce by treatment with lytic bacteriophages and a bacteriocin," Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol.
Researchers compared the structures of endolysins from two different bacteriophages, which target different kinds of Clostridium.
With the implementation of this project, using bacteriophages as a new, safe, and effective biocontrol method for treating infectious diseases caused by resistant pathogenic bacteria, we would introduce safer agricultural practices of food production for Ecuadorian industry.
Four bacteriophages Listeria--L2A, L4A (SRI NRIVVaMR RAAS, Pokrov, Russia), P100 (Listex[TM], Netherlands), Lm1 (IRCMiB, Ulyanovsk, Russia) were the objects of the research.