Bacteria

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bacteria

 [bak-te´re-ah] (L.)
plural of bacterium.

bac·te·ri·a

(bak-tēr'ē-ă), Do not use this word as a singular noun. (In Spanish, however, bacteria is singular, bacterias plural.)
Plural of bacterium.

bacteria

(băk-tîr′ē-ə)
n.
Plural of bacterium.

splenomegaly

Enlarged spleen Enlargement of spleen for any reason, which is usually a manifestation of underlying disease; the only specific finding in splenomegaly is dragging sensation in the upper right quadrant; megalic spleens may reach 4.0+ kg–eg, in agnogenic myeloid metaplasia
Splenomegaly
Congestion Cirrhosis, CHF, thrombosis of portal or splenic veins
Infection
• Bacteria Brucellosis, infective carditis agents, syphilis, TB, typhoid fever
• Fungi Histoplasmosis
• Parasites Echinococcosis, leishmaniasis, malaria, schistosomiasis, toxoplasmosis, trypanosomiasis
• Viruses CMV, EBV
Inflammatory/immune-related Rheumatoid arthritis, SLE
Hematopoietic disease/Lymphoid function
• Malignant Leukemias, eg ALL, CLL, myeloproliferative disorders–eg agnogenic myeloid metaplasia, CML, multiple myeloma, polycythemia vera; lymphomas–Hodgkin's disease, NHL
• Nonmalignant Hemolytic anemia, histiocytosis, ITP
Storage diseases Gaucher's disease, mucopolysaccharidosis, Niemann-Pick disease
Etc Amyloidosis, cysts, hypersplenism, metastases, primary tumors

transfusion reaction

Blood transfusion reaction, incompatibility reaction Transfusion medicine Any untoward response to the transfusion of non-self blood products, in particular RBCs, which evokes febrile reactions that are either minor–occurring in 1:40 transfusions and attributed to nonspecific leukocyte-derived pyrogens, or major–occurring in 1:3000 transfusions and caused by a true immune reaction, which is graded according to the presence of urticaria, itching, chills, fever and, if the reaction is intense, collapse, cyanosis, chest and/or back pain and diffuse hemorrhage Note: If any of above signs appear in a transfusion reaction, or if the temperature rises 1ºC, the transfusion must be stopped; most Pts survive if < 200 ml has been transfused in cases of red cell incompatibility-induced transfusion reaction; over 50% die when 500 ml or more has been transfused; TF mortality is ± 1.13/105 transfusions Clinical Flank pain, fever, chills, bloody urine, rash, hypotension, vertigo, fainting
Transfusion reactions
Immune, non-infectious transfusion reactions  
• Allergic Urticaria with immediate hypersensitivity
• Anaphylaxis Spontaneous anti-IgA antibody formation, occurs in ± 1:30 of Pts with immunoglobulin A deficiency, which affects 1:600 of the general population–total frequency: 1/30 X 1/600 = 1/18,000
• Antibodies to red cell antigens, eg antibodies to ABH, Ii, MNSs, P1, HLA
• Serum sickness Antibodies to donor's immunoglobulins and proteins
Non-immune, non-infectious transfusion reactions  
• Air embolism A problem of historic interest that occurred when air vents were included in transfusion sets
• Anticoagulant Citrate anticoagulant may cause tremors and EKG changes
• Coagulation defects Depletion of factors VIII and V; this 'dilutional' effect requires massive transfusion of 10 + units before becoming significant
• Cold blood In ultra-emergent situations, blood stored at 4º C may be tranfused prior to reaching body temperature at 37º C; warming a unit of blood from 4 to 37º C requires 30 kcal/L of energy, consumed as glucose; cold blood slows metabolism, exacerbates lactic acidosis, ↓ available calcium, ↑ hemoglobin's affinity for O2 and causes K+ leakage, a major concern in cold hemoglobinuria
• Hemolysis A phenomenon due to blood collection trauma, a clinically insignificant problem
• Hyperammonemia and lactic acid Both molecules accumulate during packed red cell storage and when transfused, require hepatorenal clearance, of concern in Pts with hepatic or renal dysfunction, who should receive the freshest units possible
• Hyperkalemia Hemolysis causes an ↑ of 1 mmol/L/day of potassium in a unit of stored blood, of concern in Pts with poor renal function, potentially causing arrhythmia
• Iron overload Each unit of packed RBCs has 250 mg iron, potentially causing hemosiderosis in multi-transfused Pts
Microaggregates Sludged debris in the pulmonary vasculature causing ARDS may be removed with micropore filters
Pseudoreaction Transfusion reaction mimics, eg anxiety, anaphylaxis related to a drug being administered at the same time as the transfusion
Infections transmitted by blood transfusion
• Viruses B19, CMV, EBV, HAV, HBV, HCV, HDV, HEV, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, Colorado tick fever, tropical viruses–eg Rift Valley fever, Ebola, Lassa, dengue, HHV 6, HIV-1, HIV-2, HTLV-I, HTLV-II
• Bacteria Transmission of bacterial infections from an infected donor is uncommon and includes brucellosis and syphilis in older reports; more recent reports include Lyme disease and Yersinia enterocolitica  Note: Although virtually any bacteria could in theory be transmitted in blood, the usual cause is contamination during processing rather than transmission from an infected donor
• Parasites Babesiosis, Leishmania donovani, L tropica, malaria, microfilariasis–Brugia malayi, Loa loa, Mansonella perstans, Mansonella ozzardi, Toxoplasma gondii, Trypanosoma cruzi

bac·te·ri·a

(bak-tēr'ē-ă)
Plural of bacterium.

bacteria

Single-celled, microscopic, living organisms occurring in countless numbers almost everywhere. Most are harmless; only a small proportion cause disease. Bacteria may be cocci which are spherical and usually about 1000th of a millimetre (1) in diameter. These include bunched staphylococci and single-strand grouped streptococci. Bacilli are straight rod-shaped organisms; vibrios are curved; and spirilla (including spirochaetes) are wavy. Bacteria reproduce rapidly with a generation time, under ideal conditions, of about 20 min. Those that cause human disease reproduce best at human body temperature (37° C). Some of them are unable to synthesize DNA at 42° but will do so readily at 37°. Bacteria produce powerful poisons (toxins) which are among the most poisonous substances known. It is the toxins that cause disease by binding on to body cells, gravely affecting their function or even survival.

Bacteria

(Eubacteria) one of the primary groupings (DOMAINS) of organisms according to CLASSIFICATIONS based on genetic structures and sequences.

Bacteria

Tiny, one-celled forms of life that cause many diseases and infections.

bacteria 

Microscopic unicellular organisms that commonly reproduce by cell division (fission) and contained within a cell wall. They are a natural component of the human body, particularly on the skin, mouth and intestinal tract. Many are beneficial to the environment and living organisms, but some are the cause of many infectious diseases. Infectious bacteria enter the body through torn tissues or by its orifices (e.g. nose, mouth, lungs) and can provoke inflammation. Many bacterial infections may spread from host to host (e.g. contagious conjunctivitis). Infections caused by bacteria are treated with antibiotics. Singular: bacterium. See antibiotics; Gram stain.

bac·te·ri·a

(bak-tēr'ē-ă) Do not use this word as a singular noun.
Plural of bacterium.

Patient discussion about Bacteria

Q. How the bacterias are produced?

A. The Bacteria are a large group of unicellular microorganisms. Typically a few micrometres in length, bacteria have a wide range of shapes, ranging from spheres to rods and spirals. (The name comes from the Greek bakterion, meaning small staff.) Bacteria are ubiquitous in every habitat on Earth, growing in soil, acidic hot springs, radioactive waste,[2] water, and deep in the Earth's crust, as well as in organic matter and the live bodies of plants and animals. There are typically 40 million bacterial cells in a gram of soil and a million bacterial cells in a millilitre of fresh water; in all, there are approximately five nonillion (5×1030) bacteria on Earth,[3] forming much of the world's biomass.[4] Bacteria are vital in recycling nutrients, with many important steps in nutrient cycles depending on these organisms, such as the fixation of nitrogen from the atmosphere and putrefaction. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bacteria Hope this helps.

Q. I am wondering why did he prescribe me a bacteria? My doctor has prescribed some probiotic medicines for diarrhea recently and these medicines are actually bacteria…..I am wondering why did he prescribe me a bacteria?

A. Some bacteria like Lactobacillius and Bifidobacterium are normally present in the guts of the humans and they are beneficial bacteria for humans. If not present or if they reduce in the guts then other harmful bacteria may invade your guts and will lead to other bowel problems, low immunity and ulcers. So these bacteria are friendly. Diarrhea would flush out these gut bacteria which have to be supplemented immediately by giving probiotics in some.

Q. Dog waste bacteria. How bad is it.Dose it ever die? WdWilliam@aol.com My husband has invented a Pet Waste-A-Way it liquefies the dog waste & it goes into the earth with in 8 seconds.We are worried about the environment & what it would do. We have gotten info back both ways. Some say it is there if you have dogs & some say it is bad & never dies.

A. HELLO, your husband SHOULD NO WHAT CHEMICAL HE IS USING,BEFORE HE USES IT?---AND YES CHEMICALS CAN ENTER GROUND WATER.SOIL=CAN EFFECT PLANT GROWTH,ECT___WOW__WHAT NEXT-now people can let there pets (SHIT)on my lawn,spray it and it GOs away.I DONT THINK SO-----mrfoot56

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References in periodicals archive ?
En cuanto a las bacterias que normalmente se encuentran en la naturaleza, su forma de intercambio de informacion se produce de tres maneras principales: transduccion, conjugacion y transformacion.
Pero en ese armado, algunos fragmentos cromosomicos de las bacterias se integran a algunos bacteriofagos, los cuales se desplazan en busqueda de una nueva bacteria a la cual infectar.
Estas tres vias de intercambio de informacion genetica horizontal (para diferenciarla de la que ocurre en la reproduccion, llamada vertical) suceden con cierta frecuencia en la naturaleza, lo cual podria explicar la resistencia a los antibioticos y, en teoria, tambien podria explicar la gran diversidad genetica bacterias.
Sin embargo, segun estudios del doctor Miller, tambien se ha observado que los intercambios geneticos no ocurren en las bacterias modificadas, las cuales son mas fragiles.
Por lo tanto se puede proseguir, sin tanto temor, con la creacion de bacterias modificadas que si bien no nos llevaran al paraiso terrenal, si podran contribuir a resolver ciertos problemas.
Este mecanismo de transmision de genes se realiza por medio de un mediador, un virus llamado bacteriofago, que a la manera del modulo lunar que llevo a los astronautas a la Luna, se posa en una bacteria, penetra en ella, se desarma su modulo, inyecta su ADN en la bacteria, se replica, fragmenta el cromosoma bacteriano y finalmente destruye la bacteria.