Table 1 The morphological matrices (after Tournier 1985) Morpho-semantic Construction : Prefixation Internal coinage affixation Suffixation matrices Compounding Backformation
Juxtaposition Blends Phonic Onomatopeia motivation Semantic Class-transfer Conversion coinage (class shift) Metasemy Metaphor (meaning Metonymy shift) Morphological Signifier Aphaeresis coinage reduction Apocope Initialism Borrowing Morpho-semantic External borrowing matrix Semantic borrowing and calque Morphological borrowing
They only possible exception I found is in drink (* beer) hard, but drink hard seems to be a lexicalized backformation
In traditional interpretative frameworks brown bag and butt call are conversion objects, cold call is a backformation
object (even though it is back-formed from a verbal -ing form) and boyfriend-drop is a compounding object proper.
On the other hand, Sanskritization also caused problems when backformations
: Authenticity and Languages in Cuban American Literature." Comparative Literary Studies 40.2 (2003): 127-41.
They may be backformations
, but their existence suggests that pend is viewed as a full verb, and while it may be defective for most speakers, its forms can be used.