"Our clients are asking for a higher level of connectivity and access to actionable data," said Tom Spangenberg, BWIS
Vice President of Integrated Systems.
are amongst other economic actors that have adopted this type of language, the effect of which is a distorted picture of what human rights really are.
They suggested that the BWI
and IFI must be urgently overhauled and reformed.
These are just two examples among many that illustrate how the BWIs
are usurping sovereign powers from national authorities in pursuit of their project to marketize the world.
Rather, I would argue, it was their own incompetence that was "rewarded" by the Bret ton Woods Institutions (BWI
Eventually forced to admit at least a liquidity crisis, the BWIs
became the most ardent advocates of the "illiquidity theory." Debt management after 1982 was based on the assumption that there was no fundamental crisis, only an inconvenient but temporary inability to pay.
The eagerness of the BWIs
to acquire a new role as debt managers is one explanation for what happened after 1982.
The earlier period of the BWIs
' institutional history has been captured by rich and varied historical and empirical scholarship.
Each of them now has attained a certain level of maturation, and yet each requires a measure of further continuity, either as an integral part as originally envisaged (DOV); or as a logical next step after having concluded a clearly identifiable phase (dialogue with BWIs
); of a new series of challenges dictating a move to a higher level of engagement (EFA).
And what role should the providers of development assistance, particularly the Bretton Woods Institutions (BWIs
), play in helping to bring them about?
The Bretton Woods Institutions (sometimes called the BWIs
, or Bretton Woods Sisters) were built on a capitalist foundation.