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4 Immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy reveal a variety of differentiated and mature cell types in the BMPS, including functional oligodendrocytes
We observed different neuronal subtypes in the BMPS including dopaminergic (TH-positive neurons), glutamatergic (VGLUT1-positive neurons) and GABAergic interneurons (Calbindin-positive neurons) (Fig.
SIA (1)), which indicates the presence of mature oligodendrocytes in the BMPS (Deng and Poretz, 2003 ; Schwab, 2010).
This pattern of immunostaining suggests that oligodendrocytes within the BMPS are functional and myelinate axons.
This variation likely reflects the active stages of cell differentiation that BMPS exhibit during development (Meijer et al.
5 The BMPS model exhibits neuronal functionality revealed by spontaneous electrical activity
To test the neuronal physiological properties of the cells within the BMPS model, spontaneous electrical activity in BMPS was analyzed by multi-electrode array (MEA) (Fig.
In this study, we have developed a human in vitro model using a gyratory shaking technique that enables reliabe generation of a high number (about 500 per six-well plate) of viable BMPS that are homogeneous in size and shape.
The 3D differentiation protocol for the BMPS covers stages from neuronal precursors to different cell types of the mature CNS.
Most of the recent BMPS published are entirely focused on neurons and not glial populations (Park et al.
The most novel element of this BMPS is the presence of mature human oligodendrocytes with myelination properties.