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A gene on chromosome 10q11.22 that encodes a member of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) family, which regulates cell growth and differentiation in both embryonic and adult tissues. GDF2 it thought to play a role in the adult liver and in differentiation of cholinergic central nervous system neurones.
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Binding of the BMP9 and 10 results in intracellular signaling via the phosphorylation of SMAD1, 5, and 8.
Chen et al., "MIR-21 synergizes with BMP9 in osteogenic differentiationby activating the BMP9/Smad signaling pathway in murine multilineage cells," International Journal of Molecular Medicine, vol.
BMP9 and COX-2 form an important regulatory loop in BMP9-induced osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells.
The list includes NPPS (nucleotide pyrophosphatase)/ENNP1 (ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1), (10) TGFB1 (transforming growth factor [beta]1), (23) ESR (estrogen receptor), (24) IL-1[beta], (24) VDR (vitamin D receptor), (25) BMP2, (26) RUNX2, (27) IL-15RA, (28) BMP9, (29) and TGFB3.
(2012) Association of a BMP9 haplotype with ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) in a Chinese population.
Identification and quantification of BMP4, BMP6 and BMP9 in bovine and human serum.
BMP9 has also been shown to be involved in a small number of cases.
BMPER, which is expressed by endothelial cells, directly binds to various BMPs including BMP4 and BMP9 and inhibits their signaling [48, 49].
Wang et al., "The role of COX-2 in mediating the effect of PTEN on BMP9 induced osteogenic differentiation in mouse embryonic fibroblasts," Biomaterials, vol.
Zu, "Intranasal BMP9 ameliorates alzheimer disease-like pathology and cognitive deficits in APP/PS1 transgenic mice," Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience, vol.
Neural progenitors that are generated in this way and treated transiently with bone morphogenic protein 9 (BMP9) showed a significant increase in the expression of BFCN markers such as choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and nerve growth factor receptors (NGFR): TrkA and neurotrophin p75.