2000).The GDF9 secreted particularly from oocyte through folliculogenesis, it works synergistically with bone morphogenetic protein 15(BMP15
) to enhance proliferation of granulosa cells, increment in inhibin production and suppressing progesterone secretion induced by FSH (McNatty et al.
In addition, numerous studies have revealed that bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15
) is differentially expressed in small and large antral follicles during the development in vitro of cultured preantral follicles (Pramod et al., 2013; Lima et al., 2012).
Two related members of the TGFB superfamily are involved in the function and development of the ovary: Growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) and bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15
Using reverse transcription--(RT-) PCR arrays, they showed that human bone marrow MSC-derived EVs contain mRNAs involved in transcription (e.g., CLOCK, IRF6, and LHX6), immune regulation (e.g., CRLF1, IL1RN, and MT1X), cell cycle regulation (e.g., SENP2, RBL1, and CDC14B), DNA/RNA binding (e.g., HMGN4, TOPORS, and ESF1), actin cytoskeleton regulation (e.g., DDN, MSN, and CTNNA1), and extracellular matrix remodeling (e.g., COL4A2, IBSP) as well as cell differentiation into neuron (e.g., RAX2, OR11H12), bone (e.g., NIN, BMP15
), endothelium/epithelium (e.g., MAGED2, CEACAM5), and hematopoietin (e.g., HK3, EPX).
Genotyping of BMPR1B, BMP15
and GDF9 genes in Chilean sheep breeds and association with prolificacy.
In contrast, another research group observed a reduction in GSH and transcript levels encoding GSH in the presence of FSH alone in COCs of cattle , but this phenomenon was rescued by combined treatment with bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15
) , which is an important factor in ovarian maturation [118, 119].
Missense mutations in the BMP15
gene are associated with ovarian failure.
Growth differentiation factor 9 and bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15
) are two oocyte-specific proteins and co-expressed by growing oocytes in rodents, sheep, and humans (1-3).
Estrogen promotes the development of mouse cumulus cells in coordination with oocyte-derived GDF9 and BMP15
. Molecular Endocrinology, v.24, n.12, p.2303-2314, 2010.
Three of these Fec genes identified in sheep are bone morphogenetic protein receptor type IB (BMPRIB) or Activin Like Kinase 6, known as FecB located on chromosome 6;[3,4,5] growth differentiation factor (GDF9), known as FecG located on chromosome 5 [6,7] and bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15
), known as FecX located on the X chromosome the full lenght.[8,6] It is a member of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily (TGFP) which in rodents,[9,6] cattle, goat  and sheep is expressed in the oocyte.