Over 20 BPM members have been identified to date (3) , among them BMP-2, BMP-3, BMP-4
and BMP-7 have been studied more than any others.
The first study  indicates that recombinant adenovirus BMP-2 and BMP-12 (Ad-BMP-2, Ad-BMP-12) formed tissue-like tendons/ligaments, unlike BMP-2, BMP-4
, and BMP-7.
Other claims provide for growth factors such as BMP-2, BMP-4
, BMP-6, BMP-7, transforming growth factor (TGF-?), and insulin growth factor (IGF-I).
, BMP-7, and BMP-9 expression was significantly increased at the messenger RNA level in quadriceps of mice that underwent SCI (Figures 6-7).
Bone morphogenic protein-4 (BMP-4) is originally identified as a regulator of cartilage and bone formation (1).
Chronic BMP-4 infusion was showed to impair endothelium dependent vasodilatation in mice.
An earlier study has shown that BMP-4
stimulates chondrogenesis in C3H10T1/2 and MC615 chondroprogenitor cells through activation of the BMP-receptor-associated Smads (Hatakeyama et al.
, a member of the BMP superfamily was also tested on primitive cells.
The counterpart turned out to be bmp-4, a gene that operates in the ventral region of the frog embryo.
From these and other experiments--dpp mRNA, which promotes dorsal development in flies, induces ventral development when injected into frogs--researchers conclude that sog and dpp have the same roles in the developing fly as chordin and bmp-4, respectively, have in frog embryos.