Among them, ERK5, which is also known as big MAP kinase 1 (BMK1), is the most recently identified family member .
Berk, "Big mitogen-activated protein kinase (BMK1)/ERK5 protects endothelial cells from apoptosis," Circulation Research, vol.
Lee, "Big mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (BMK1) is a redox-sensitive kinase," Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.
Mitogen-activated protein kinases include four different types of proteins, that is, ERK1/2, c-jun N-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinase (JNK/SAPK), big MAP kinase 1 (BMK1
or ERK5), and the p38 group of protein kinases (Zarubin and Han 2005), which are serine/threonine protein kinases that are activated by diverse stimuli, including cytokines, growth factors, neurotransmitters, hormones, cellular stress, or cell adherence.
Similarly, ERK, JNK, p38, and BMK1 are all serine/threonine kinases that are directed by a proline residue.
The BMK1 (also known as ERK5) pathway, which has been involved in cell survival, antiapoptotic signaling, angiogenesis, cell motility, differentiation, and cell proliferation, is one of the least studied members of the MAPK family .