to aid discovery of small molecules that can disrupt the interaction between the BECN1
protein and a negative regulator, BCL2.
The mammalian counterparts of this complex include Beclin 1 (BECN1
), ATG14L (Barkor), AMBRA1, hVps34, and p150 (13).
Indeed, miR20a regulates several genes related to autophagy and inhibits ATG16L1, BECN1
, and SQSTM1 protein expression .
Torosantucci et al., "PINK1 and BECN1
relocalize at mitochondria-associated membranes during mitophagy and promote ER-mitochondria tethering and autophagosome formation," Autophagy, vol.
For example, the ULK1-ATG13-FIP200-ATG101 complex is responsible for the induction of autophagy [16, 17], the class III phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) 3-kinase complex (BECN1
, ATG14/ATG14L, VPS15, VPS34, and AMBRA1) is responsible for the initiation of the autophagosome [18, 19], and the ATG12-5-16 and LC3-II are responsible for the formation of autophagosome [20-22].
Sinha, "Conformational flexibility of BECN1
: essential to its key role in autophagy and beyond," Protein Science, vol.
(138) The interaction of Pr[P.sup.C] with Beclin (BECN)1 facilitates the localization of BECN1
into lipid rafts and thus allows the activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (catalytic subunit type-3 or PI3KC3) complex in response to A[[BETA].SUB.42], showing a beneficial role of Pr[P.sup.C] as a positive regulator of the BECN1-PI3KC3 complex in lipid rafts.
Thus, SREBF1 is a master regulator which controls gene expression within the SREBF1 to FASN region via targeting transcriptional repressors of MPRIP, TCAP, and other muscle-related genes (BECN1
, CACNB1, MYH2, MYH3, and MYH13); one of these repressors BHLHB 2 maps near FASN .
Furthermore, the autophagy initiation protein BECN1
and the ATG5-ATG12-ATG16 complex proteins, which are associated with nucleation and elongation of the autophagosome, were both upregulated following DAC treatment, confirming the DAC-mediated induction of autophagy in SKM-1 cells (Figure 4(b)).
In addition, Nix can also interact with protein encoded by the BECN1
gene (beclin1)/Bcl-2 complex to release beclin1, thus freeing beclin1 to induce autophagy [13, 37].
In liver I/R injury, dihydromyricetin also increases the mRNA expression of autophagy-related genes, such as BECN1
, LC3, Atg5, and Atg12, protecting liver cell against apoptosis.
Gozuacik, "miR-376b controls starvation and mTOR inhibition-related autophagy by targeting ATG4C and BECN1
," Autophagy, vol.