BCAA


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ARID4B

A gene on chromosome 2q11.2 that encodes an ARID (AT-rich interactive domain) family transcription factor thought to function in the assembly and/or enzymatic activity of the Sin3A co-repressor complex, or in mediating interactions between the complex and other complexes.

amino acid

(a-me'no) [amino-]
Any of a large group of organic compounds marked by the presence of both an amino (NH2) group and a carboxyl (COOH) group. Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins and the end products of protein digestion.

Approximately 80 amino acids are found in nature, but only 20 are necessary for human metabolism or growth. Of these, some can be produced by the liver; the rest, the “'essential' amino acids, ” must be supplied by food. Oral preparations of amino acids may be used as dietary supplements.

Arginine is nonessential for adults but cannot be formed quickly enough to supply the demand in infants and thus is classed as essential in early life.

Some proteins containing all the essential amino acids are called complete proteins. Examples are milk, cheese, eggs, and meat. Proteins that do not contain all the essential amino acids are called incomplete proteins. Examples are vegetables and grains. Amino acids pass unchanged through the intestinal wall into the blood, then through the portal vein to the liver and into the general circulation, from which they are absorbed by the tissues according to the specific amino acid needed by that tissue to make its own protein. Amino acids, if not otherwise metabolized, may be converted into urea. See: deaminization; digestion; protein

branched-chain amino acids

Abbreviation: BCAA
The essential amino acids, leucine, isoleucine, and valine. “Branched-chain” refers to their chemical structure. They are therapeutically valuable because they bypass the liver and are available for cellular uptake from the circulation. Parenteral administration, alone or mixed with other amino acids, is thought to be beneficial whenever catabolism due to physiological stress occurs. Skeletal muscles use BCAAs for their anticatabolic effects.

conditionally dispensable amino acid

An amino acid that becomes essential under specific clinical conditions, e.g., when their rate of synthesis is limited.

essential amino acid

An amino acid that is required for growth and development but that cannot be produced by the body and must be obtained from food. The essential amino acids are histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, cysteine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, threonine, tryptophan, and valine. Synonym: indispensable amino acid

indispensable amino acid

Essential amino acid.

nonessential amino acid

An amino acid that can be produced by the body and is not required in the diet. The nonessential amino acids are alanine, aspartic acid, arginine, citrulline, glutamic acid, glycine, hydroxyglutamic acid, hydroxyproline, norleucine, proline, and serine.

semi-essential amino acid

An amino acid of which an adequate amount must be consumed in the diet to prevent the use of essential amino acids to synthesize it. An example is tyrosine. Without adequate dietary intake, the essential amino acid phenylalanine is used to make tyrosine.

branched-chain amino acids

Abbreviation: BCAA
The essential amino acids, leucine, isoleucine, and valine. “Branched-chain” refers to their chemical structure. They are therapeutically valuable because they bypass the liver and are available for cellular uptake from the circulation. Parenteral administration, alone or mixed with other amino acids, is thought to be beneficial whenever catabolism due to physiological stress occurs. Skeletal muscles use BCAAs for their anticatabolic effects.
See also: amino acid
References in periodicals archive ?
Dietary BCAA Intake Linked to Tumour Development and Growth
Plasma branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) concentrations were measured 12 times since the ingestion of cow's milk, over a period of 8 months.
Wiltafsky et al [10] reported that an increase in the SID leucine:valine ratio in diets fed to pigs produced a 3-fold increase in branched-chain [alpha]-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKDH) activity in the liver but reported no effect of leucine level on the mRNA expression of mitochondrial BCAA transaminase ([BCAT.sub.m]).
Abbreviations AA: Amino acid AADP: Alpha-aminoadipic acid AC: Acylcarnitine BCAA: Branched-chain amino acid C: Carnitine CCD: Chemically defined and controlled diet DIO: Diet-induced obesity EDTA: Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid Glc: Glucose HCPC: Hierarchical clustering of principal components HOMA-IR: Homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance LCFA: Long-chain fatty acid MCFA: Medium-chain fatty acid Md: Male diabetic NEFA: Nonesterified fatty acid NZB: New Zealand black NZO: New Zealand obese PCA: Principal component analysis SCHAD: Short-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase T2DM: Type 2 diabetes mellitus TAG: Triacylglycerol.
Study Manipulation Exercise protocol Bailey et al., ip injection of 1.0 Exhausting, constant/ 1993 (27) mg/kg of quipazine speed treadmill dimaleate (a 5-HT running at 20 m/min agonist) or 1.5 mg/kg (5% grade) of LY 53857 (a 5-HT antagonist), immediately before the exercise Calders et al., ip injection of 30 mg Exhausting, constant/ 1997 (50) of BCAA 5 min before speed treadmill the exercise.
[6] showed that NaPB's effect is mainly on E1a subunit of BCKDC; however the same study showed a significantly reduced level in BCAA levels following NaPB treatment in both patients with E2 mutations.
Dr Muireann Coen, from Imperial College London, said: "We found that a 50 per cent increase in the mother's level of individual BCAAs equated to a 1 per cent to 2.4 per cent increase in birth weight, or 5-11 grams."
Plasma amino acid levels to assess the elevation of BCAA and to detect alloisoleucine.
In this case, the possible constituents in the CAJ to increase fat contribution may be vitamin C and branch chain amino acid (BCAA) (11,12).
Optimum Nutrition formulated Gold Standard BCAA to be highly drinkable for steady sipping throughout extended training sessions.
The ability of branchedchain amino acids (BCAA) to compete with tryptophan for crossing the blood brain barrier through the same transporter has provoked the hypothesis that the supplementation of these amino acids could reduce cerebral serotonin synthesis and prevent central fatigue during prolonged exercise (Blomstrand et al., 1997; Fernstrom, 2005).