There findings were evaluated with status of axillary nodes
by histopathological examination.
- US-based biotechnology company Genentech's Phase III KATHERINE study met its primary endpoint, showing Kadcyla (ado-trastuzumab emtansine) as a single agent significantly reduced the risk of disease recurrence or death (invasive disease-free survival, iDFS) compared to Herceptin (trastuzumab) as an adjuvant (after surgery) treatment in people with HER2-positive early breast cancer who have residual disease (pathological invasive residual disease in the breast and/or axillary nodes
) present following neoadjuvant (before surgery) treatment, the company said.
Status of axillary nodes
could not be determined in 24 (4.8%) of patients.
Strain elastography of abnormal axillary nodes
in breast cancer patients does not improve diagnostic accuracy compared with conventional ultrasound alone.
[7,11] Several studies have evaluated the response of positive axillary nodes
to NACT (Table 1).
Scar boost was administered using 6 MeV electron beam to a dose of 7.5 Gy in 3 fractions in patients with high risk features for local recurrence like high grade, positive axillary nodes
, lymphovascular invasion and close or positive surgical resection margins.
A fluorodeoxyglucose-PET-CT (FDG-PET-CT) was performed to localise the paraprotein-producing tumour, demonstrating bilateral FDG-avid cervical and axillary nodes
, with a single mediastinal and portacaval node (Figures 1(a), 1(b), and 1(c)).
found that SLNB is a safe and accurate method of screening the axillary nodes
for metastasis in women with a small breast cancer by the randomized trial .
Evaluation of the axillary nodes
is currently part of breast cancer staging and can help the clinician determine the need for adjuvant chemotherapy.
In such cases, the updated guideline "recommends that these patients receive postmastectomy radiotherapy only if there is already sufficient information to justify its use without needing to know that additional axillary nodes
The Axillary Reverse Mapping (ARM) is a technique which enables the intrasurgery distinction between upper limb and tumor region draining lymph nodes after using a special dye injection in the medial bicipital sulcus in order to mark the lymphatic vessels of the arm and their respective axillary nodes
. This way, it is possible to visualize lymph nodes which have higher chances of being free of tumor cells since they drain mostly or exclusively the upper limb.