Kibble at England's National Physical Laboratory, this method offers a precise value of the Planck constant, from which one derives Avogadro's number
Where NA is the Avogadro's number
, CFe the number of iron atoms in the chemical formula of the samples, P b the bulk density and M is the molar mass of the samples.
In the equations, K is an optical constant, [R.sub.([theta] = 0)] is the excess Rayleigh ratio at [theta] = 0, c the polymer concentration, [n.sub.0] is the RI of the pure solvent, [[lambda].sub.0] is the wavelength in vacuo and [N.sub.A] is Avogadro's number
. Here, the data from 50, 75, 90, 105 scattering angles were used for the Zimm procedure.
From my perspective, (beyond mathematics, etc.), there are only a few: bonding, Avogadro's number
, concentration, equilibrium, steady and unsteady state, the concept of flux, free energy/chemical potential, conservation laws, friction (including diffusivities), rate limiting steps and relative resistances, CSTRs.
For if it could be shown that the homeopathic phenomenon does not exist, that medicines do not in fact have the power to elicit or provoke the same symptoms that they help to cure, and that remedies diluted beyond the level of Avogadro's number
are simply inert and have no effect of any kind, then he would be entirely right to insist that such beliefs are utterly groundless, that those who persist in them are mired in wishful thinking, and that public funds should not be provided for the medical care of indigent people based on them, or even for further research as to their efficacy, since more than enough would already have been carried out to disprove the need or value of proceeding any further along this path.
The [R] is the amount of HPTC in mole L- 1 after gamma irradiation NA is Avogadro's number
D is the -rays dose in kGys and 6.24 A-1017 is conversion factor to 100 eV L-1.
Here [a.sub.s] is the surface coverage of the surfactant (specific area of the surfactant), [S] is the surfactant concentration in the system, [N.sub.A] is Avogadro's number
, [M.sub.o] is monomer added in the batch period, [t.sub.bp] is reaction time of the batch period and ti is the time elapsed since the continuous addition of monomer started.
Neither a strong or weak potency actually contains the original material; in fact, for most remedies, the amount of dilution is thought to exceed the limit of Avogadro's number
in terms of the presence of chemical molecules in the dilution.
where N is Avogadro's number
, a is the molecular surface area of the probe, and [[gamma].sub.1.sup.d] is the dispersive component of the surface free energy of the probe.
Where dhkl is the d- spacing and h, k and l are corresponding miller indices, M is the molar mass of the sample and NA is the Avogadro's number
.The values of all these parameters are given in Table-1.
Because the dilution factors in homeopathy beyond 12C exceed Avogadro's number
, skeptics insist that this eliminates the possibility of any scientifically curative action.