The monophyly of the Limnocorinae (Limnocoris lutzi) is characterized by three autapomorphies
: (8-3), (37-2), and (39-1).
Calyptocephalellidae diagnosable on the basis of the following combination of characters (autapomorphies
marked by asterisk): 1) relatively well-developed pterygoid process of the maxilla, 2) unsculptured alveolar region of the labial face of the maxilla dorsoventrally narrow *, 3) premaxilla with anterior portion of palatine shelf well defined in lingual view, 4) atlantal cotyles bean-shaped *, 5) unfused atlas and second presacral vertebra, 6) strong anteroposterior extension of sacral vertebral diapophyses *.
are presented by Gonzobandia (characters 10, 12, 14 and 15 in Table 2, plus the simple phallosome, the endophallic "radula", v1 bent proximally at 90[degrees], and the distally straight outer cusp of the lacinial tip).
of the genus are a robust bifurcate process situated at the middle lobe of the pronotum and ah extremely short labium; a potential synapomorphy with Centromus Bergroth, 1910 is a strongly protruding, bill-shaped ovipositor.
In addition, we propose a new subgenus for Natalina wesseliana which represents a distinct and basally divergent lineage within Natalina, and which exhibits several anatomical autapomorphies
that set it apart from the remaining species.
Osteology and myology of the cephalic region and pectoral girdle of Plotosus lineatus, with comments on Plotosidae (Teleostei: Siluriformes) autapomorphies
for the different taxa examined were actively searched for and included in the analysis.
Palp I II III IV Tarsi 2.65 2.42 2.60 2.61 3.38 Metatarsi -- 3.92 3.77 4.43 6.84 Tibiae 3.54 4.77 3.86 3.08 5.39 Patellae 3.24 4.47 3.86 3.40 3.81 Femora 5.18 6.45 5.73 5.26 6.89 Table 4.--Synapomorphies and autapomorphies
for the cladogram presented in Fig.
The presence of sensilla styloconica on the proboscis is therefore a characteristic of the Neopseustidae to be added to the previously mentioned autapomorphies
such as the double-tube configuration of the proboscis (Kristensen & Nielsen, 1981) and the presence of antennal composite sensilla basiconica with concentrated pores (Faucheux, 2005 a, b; submitted).
CI=1.0 denotes synapomorphies (endemic taxa: present in a monophyletic group of areas) or autapomorphies
(characteristic taxa: present in a single area).
were excluded from the analysis; 0 = plesiomorphic state; 1-4 = apomorphic states; ?
As shown in Figure 4A, the presence of a helical acrosome (#1) at the top of an elongated nucleus (more than 20 [micro]m long, #5), of mitochondria helically coiled around the main nuclear portion (#7), and of a complex anchoring apparatus (#10) are autapomorphies
for the siboglinid spermatozoon.